A REVIEW ON NIGELLA SATIVA: A BLACK SEED OF MIRACLE

Main Article Content

Dhanesh Prajapati
Dr. Nishkruti Mehta
Dr. Pragnesh Patani

Keywords

Nigella Sativa, Black Seeds, Medicinal Plant, Anti-hypertension, Anti-oxidant, Anti-Inflammatory, Thymoquinone

Abstract

The medicinal herb Nigella sativa of the Ranunculaceae family is utilized extensively all over the world. It is widely used in several conventional medical systems, including Unani, Tibb, Ayurveda, and Siddha. Folklore has long used seeds and oil in a variety of food and medical systems. Numerous illnesses and disorders have been treated with Nigella sativa seeds in the past. The seed Nigella sativa, sometimes referred to as black caraway and "Kalonji," is well-known throughout the world. It is one of the most widely used medicinal plants in the world, and its fixed oil includes a variety of beneficial chemical compounds, including thymoquinone, thymohydroquinone, dithymoquinone, thymol, nigellicine, carvacrol, nigellimine, nigellicine, nigellidine, and alpha-hederin. Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal, antiparasitic and antiprotozoal, antiviral, cytotoxic, anticancer, neuro-, gastro-, cardio-, hetapto-, and nephroprotective activities are just a few of the potential uses for Nigella sativa and its constituents, including some isolated compounds. This further reveals that the main bioactive component of the essential oil, thymoquinone, is responsible for the majority of the plant's medicinal capabilities. The pharmacological properties of Nigella sativa for the treatment of acne vulgaris, vitiligo, atopic dermatitis, plaque psoriasis, and wound healing are reviewed in this article based on the most recent research.

Abstract 504 | pdf Downloads 218

References

1. Khare CP. Encyclopedia of Indian medicinal plants. NewYork: Springes-Verlag Berlin sHeidelberg; 2004.
2. Darakhshan S, Bidmeshki Pour A, Hosseinzadeh Colagar A, Sisakhtnezhad S. Thymoquinone and its therapeutic potentials. Pharmacol Res. 2015;95–96:138–58.
3. Goreja WG. Black seed: nature's miracle remedy. New York, NY: Amazing Herbs Press; 2003.
4. Shafiq H, Ahmad A, Masud T, Kaleem M. Cardio-protective and anti-cancer therapeutic potential of Nigella sativa. Iran J Basic Med Sci. 2014;17(12):967–79.
5. Butt MS, Sultan MT. Nigella sativa: reduces the risk of various maladies. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2010;50(7):654–65.
6. Saad B., Azaizeh H., Said O. Tradition and perspectives of Arab herbal medicine: a review. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2005;2(4):475–479.
7. Mohammed I. N., Babikir H. E. Traditional and spiritual medicine among Sudanese children with epilepsy. Sudanese Journal of Paediatrics. 2013; 13:31–37.
8. Tasawar Z., Siraj Z., Ahmad N., Lashari M. H. The effects of nigella sativa (Kalonji) on lipid profile in patients with stable coronary artery disease in Multan, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition. 2011;10(2):162–167.
9. Gilani A. H., Aziz N., Khurram I. M., Chaudhary K. S., Iqbal A. Bronchodilator, spasmolytic and calcium antagonist activities of Nigella sativa seeds (Kalonji): A traditional herbal product with multiple medicinal uses. Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association. 2001;51(3):115–120.
10. Benhaddou-Andaloussi A., Martineau L., Vuong T., et al. The in vivo antidiabetic activity of Nigella sativa is mediated through activation of the AMPK pathway and increased muscle Glut4 content. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2011; 2011:9.
11. Yimer E.M., Tuem K.B., Karim A., Ur-Rehman N., Anwar F. Nigella sativa L. (Black Cumin): A Promising Natural Remedy for Wide Range of Illnesses. Evid. Based Complement. Altern. Med. 2019;2019
12. Sharma NK, Ahirwar D, Jhade D, Gupta S. Medicinal and Pharmacological Potential of Nigella sativa: A Review. Ethnobotanical leaflets.2009;11.
13. Chevallier A. Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants. New York, NY: DK Publishing. 1996. p. 237. 237.
14. Begum S, Mannan A. A review on nigella sativa: a marvel herb. Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics. 2020 Mar 15;10(2):213-9.
15. Cheikh-Rouhou S, Besbes S, Lognay G, Blecker C, Deroanne C, Attia H. Sterol composition of black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) and Aleppo pine (Pinus halpensis Mill.) seed oils. J Food Comp Anal. 2008;21(2):162–168.
16. Bourgou S, Ksouri R, Bellila A, Skandrani I, Falleh H, Marzouk B. Phenolic composition and biological activities of Tunisian Nigella sativa L. shoots and roots. C R Biol. 2008;331(1):48–55.
17. Al-Jassir MS. Chemical composition and microflora of black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) seeds growing in Saudi Arabia. Food Chem. 1992; 45:239–242.
18. Atta-Ur-Rahman Nigellidine-a new indazole alkaloid from the seed of Nigella sativa. Tetrahedron Lett. 1995;36(12):1993–1994.
19. Mehta, BK., Pandit, V., Gupta, M. New principles from seeds of Nigella sativa. Nat Prod Res 2009; 23: 138-48.
20. Al-Ali A, Alkhawajah AA, Randhawa MA, Shaikh NA. Oral and intraperitoneal LD50 of thymoquinone, an active principle of Nigella sativa, in mice and rats. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. 2008; 20(2):25-27.
21. Yarnell E, Abascal K. Nigella sativa holy herb of the Middle East. Altern Compl Therap 2011; 17(2):99-105.
22. Morsi NM. Antimicrobial effect of crude extracts of Nigella sativa on multiple antibiotics-resistant bacteria. Acta Microbiol Pol 2000; 49(1):63-74
23. Ramadan M. F. Healthy blends of high linoleic sunflower oil with selected cold pressed oils: Functionality, stability and antioxidative characteristics. Industrial Crops and Products. 2013;43(1):65–72.
24. Abu-Zinadah O. Using nigella sativa oil to treat and heal chemical induced wound of rabbit skin. Journal of King Abdulaziz University—Science. 2009;21(2):335–346.
25. Ali B. H., Blunden G. Pharmacological and toxicological properties of Nigella sativa. Phytotherapy Research. 2003;17(4):299–305.
26. de Cássia da Silveira E Sá R., Andrade L. N., de Sousa D. P. A review on anti-inflammatory activity of monoterpenes. Molecules. 2013;18(1):1227–1254.
27. Ali S. A., Meitei K. V. Nigella sativa seed extract and its bioactive compound thymoquinone: The new melanogens causing hyperpigmentation in the wall lizard melanophores. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 2011;63(5):741–746.
28. Ghorbanibirgani A., Khalili A., Rokhafrooz D. Comparing nigella sativa oil and fish oil in treatment of vitiligo. Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal. 2014;16(6)
29. Satishkumar M., Duraiswamy B., et al. Potential herbs and its phytoconstituents against fungal infection: a systematic review. World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2012; 1:1–20.
30. Rogozhin E. A., Oshchepkova Y. I., Odintsova T. I., et al. Novel antifungal defensins from Nigella sativa L. seeds. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry. 2011;49(2):131–137.
31. Asdadi A., Harhar H., Gharby S., et al. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of Nigella Sativa L. oil seed cultivated in Morocco. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Science Invention. 2014; 3:9–15.
32. Bita A., Rosu A., Calina D., et al. An alternative treatment for Candida infections with Nigella sativa extracts. European Journal of Hospital Pharmacy: Science and Practice. 2012;19(2):162.2–162.
33. Piras A., Rosa A., Marongiu B., et al. Chemical composition and in vitro bioactivity of the volatile and fixed oils of Nigella sativa L. extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide. Industrial Crops and Products. 2013; 46:317–323.
34. Harzallah H. J., Noumi E., Bekir K., et al. Chemical composition, antibacterial and antifungal properties of Tunisian Nigella sativa fixed oil. African Journal of Microbiology Research. 2012;6(22):4675–4679.
35. Yaman I., Durmus A. S., Ceribasi S., Yaman M. Efects of Nigella sativa and silver sulfadiazine on burn wound healing in rats. Veterinarni Medicina. 2010;55(12):619–624.
36. Abu-Al-Basal M. A. Influence of nigella sativa fixed oil on some blood parameters and histopathology of skin in staphylococcal-infected BalB/C mice. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences. 2011;14(23):1038–1046.
37. Ab Rahman M. R., Abdul Razak F., Mohd Bakri M. Evaluation of wound closure activity of nigella sativa, melastoma malabathricum, pluchea indica, and piper sarmentosum extracts on scratched monolayer of human gingival fibroblasts. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2014; 2014:9.
38. Dwarampudi L. P., Palaniswamy D., Nithyanantham M., Raghu P. S. Antipsoriatic activity and cytotoxicity of ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds. Pharmacognosy Magazine. 2012;8(32):268–272.
39. Ahmed Jawad H., Ibraheem Azhar Y., Al-Hamdi Khalil I. Evaluation of efficacy, safety and antioxidant effect of Nigella sativa in patients with psoriasis: a randomized clinical trial. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Investigations. 2014;5(2):186–193.
40. Hadi N. A., Ashor A. W. Nigella sativa oil lotion 20% vs. benzoyl peroxide lotion 5% in the treatment of mild to moderate acne vulgaris. Iraqi Postgraduate Medical Journal. 2010;9(4):371–376.
41. Bhalani U., Shah K. Preparation and evaluation of topical gel of Nigella sativa (KALONJI) International Journal of Research and Development in Pharmacy & Life Sciences. 2015;4(4):1669–1672.
42. Al-Shabanah OA, Badary OA, Nagi MN, Al-Gharably NM, Al-Rikabi AC and Al-Bakairi AM, Thymoquinone protects against doxorubicin induced cardiotoxicity without compromising its antitumor activity, J Exp Clin Cancer Res, 1998, 17, 193-198.
43. Nagi M N and Mansour MA, Protective effect of thymoquinone against doxorubicin induced cardiotoxicity in rats: a possible mechanism of protection, Pharmacol Res, 2000, 41, 283-289.
44. Badary OA, Abdel-Naim AB, Abdel-Wahab MH and Hamada FM, The influence of thymoquinone on doxorubicin-induced hyperlipidemic nephropathy in rats, Toxicology, 2000, 143(3), 219-26.
45. Badary OA and Gamal-el-Din AM, Inhibitory effects of thymoquinone against 20- methylcholanthrene induce fibrosarcoma tumoriogenesis, Cancer Detec Prev, 2001, 25, 362-368
46. Badary OA, Al-Shabanah OA, Nagi MN, Al-Rikabi and Elmazar MM, Inhibition of benzopyrene induced forestomach carcinogenesis in mice by thymoquinone, European J Cancer Prevention, 1999, 8, 435-440.
47. OA, Thymoquinone attenuates ifosfamide-induced Fanconi syndrome in rats and enhances its antitumor activity in mice, J Ethnopharmacol, 1999, 67(2), 135-142.
48. OA, Abdel-Naim AB, Abdel-Wahab MH and Hamada FM, The influence of thymoquinone on doxorubicin-induced hyperlipidemic nephropathy in rats, Toxicology, 2000, 143(3), 219-26.
49. Nagi MN, Alam K, Badary OA, Al-Shabanah OA, Al-Sawaf HA and Al-Bekairi AM, Thymoquinone protects against carbon tetrachloride hepatotoxicity in mice via an antioxidant mechanism, Biochem Mol Biol Int, 1999, 47(1),153-159.
50. El-Dakhakhny M, Barakat M, El-Halim MA and Aly SM, Effects of Nigella sativa oil on gastric secretion and ethanol induced ulcer in rats, J Ethnopharmacol, 2000,72(1-2), 299-304.
51. Kruk I, Michalska T, Lichszteld K, Kladna A and Aboul- Enein H Y , The effect of thymol and its derivatives on reactions generating reactive oxygen species, Chemosphere, 2000, 41,1059-1064.
52. Bakathir HA, Abbas NA. Detection of the antibacterial effect of Nigella sativa ground seeds with water. Afr J Tradit Compl Altern Med. 2011;8(2):159–164.
53. Morsi NM. Antimicrobial effect of crude extracts of Nigella sativa on multiple antibiotics-resistant bacteria. Acta Microbiol Pol. 2000;49(1):63–74.
54. Hannan A, Saleem S, Chaudhary S, Barka M, Arshad MU. Anti-bacterial activity of Nigella sativa against clinicalisolates of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. 2008;20(3):72–74.
55. Salem EM, Yar T, Bamosa AO, Al-Quorain A, Yasawy MI, Alsulaiman RM, et al.et al. Comparative study of Nigella sativa and triple therapy in eradication of Helicobacter Pylori in patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia. Saudi J Gastroenterol. 2010;16(3):207–214.
56. Chaieb K, Kouidhi B, Jrah H, Mahdouani K, Bakhrouf A. Antibacterial activity of Thymoquinone, an active principle of Nigella sativa and its potency to prevent bacterial biofilm formation. BMC Compl Altern Med. 2011;11:29.
57. Dalli, M.; Azizi, S.; Kandsi, F.; Gseyra, N. Evaluation of the in vitro antioxidant activity of different extracts of Nigella sativa L. seeds, and the quantification of their bioactive compounds. Mater. Today Proc. 2021, 45, 7259–7263.
58. Dalli, M.; Azizi, S.; Benouda, H.; Azghar, H.A.; Tahri, M.; Boufalja, B.; Maleb, A.; Gseyra, N. Molecular Composition and Antibacterial Effect of Five Essential Oils Extracted from Nigella sativa L. Seeds against Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria: A Comparative Study. Evid.-Based Complement. Altern. Med. 2021, 2021, 6643765.
59. Atta-ur-Rahman, S.M.; Zaman, K. Nigellimine: A new isoquinoline alkaloid from the seeds of nigella sativa. J. Nat. Prod. 1992, 55, 676–678.
60. Atta-ur-Rahman, S.M.; Hasan, S.S.; Choudhary, M.I.; Ni, C.Z.; Clardy, J. Nigellidine—A new indazole alkaloid from the seeds of Nigella sativa. Tetrahedron Lett. 1995, 36, 1993–1996.
61. Parveen, A.; Farooq, M.A.; Kyunn, W.W. A new oleanane type saponin from the aerial parts of nigella sativa with anti-oxidant and anti-diabetic potential. Molecules 2020, 25, 2171.
62. Atta-ur-Rahman, S.M. Isolation and structure determination of nigellicine, a novel alkaloid from the seeds of nigella sativa. Tetrahedron Lett. 1985, 26, 2759–2762.
63. Takruri, H.R.H.; Dameh, M.A.F. Study of the nutritional value of black cumin seeds (Nigella sativa L). J. Sci. Food Agric. 1998, 76, 404–410.
64. Dalli, M.; Daoudi, N.E.; Azizi, S.; Benouda, H.; Bnouham, M.; Gseyra, N. Chemical Composition Analysis Using HPLC-UV/GCMSand Inhibitory Activity of Different Nigella sativa Fractions on Pancreatic α-Amylase and Intestinal Glucose Absorption. BioMed Res. Int. 2021, 2021, 9979419.
65. Tiji, S.; Benayad, O.; Berrabah, M.; El Mounsi, I.; Mimouni, M. Phytochemical Profile and Antioxidant Activity of Nigella sativa L. Growing in Morocco. Sci. World J. 2021, 2021, 6623609.
66. Nickavar, F.; Mojab, B.; Javidnia, K.; Amoli Roodgar, M.A. Chemical Composition of the Fixed and Volatile Oils of Nigella sativa L. from Iran. Z. Naturforsch.-Sect. C J. Biosci. 2003, 58, 629–631.