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Ronaq Zaman
Ihsan Ullah
Ambreen Arif


Broth microdilution, Fluconazole, Itraconazole, Clotrimazole, Voriconazole, Miconazole


The aim of this study was to assess frequency of Candida species causing vulvovaginal candidiasis among symptomatic pregnant females and their resistance pattern against azoles antifungal drugs. Specimens were taken from 176 antenatal patients having signs and symptoms of vulvovaginal candidiasis. Culture, microscopic examination and API 20C AUX system were used for isolation and identification of Candida species. Susceptibility testing to Azoles were performed by disc diffusion and broth microdilution method. Out of 176 samples, 73(43%) were positive for Candida infection. Candida albican were 31(42.4%) followed by Candida krusei 20(27.3%), Candida parapsilosis 18(24.6%) and Candida glabrata (5.4%). Candida infection was more frequent in 2nd trimester (54.7%) followed by 3rd trimester (27.3%) and 1st trimester 13(17.8%). A good agreement was revealed between the disc diffusion and broth microdilution methods in detecting resistance in Candida species. Nonalbicans Candida showed higher resistance against Fluconazole (P-value <0.001), Clotrimazole (P-value 0.03) and Miconazole (P-value 0.01) as compared to C. albicans. It is necessary to perform antifungal susceptibility tests for Candida species for providing resistance profile information to choose appropriate drug for treatment. Disc diffusion method can be used in diagnostic practice as it is convenient to perform.

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