Main Article Content
Parents, Neonates, NICU, Anxiety, Depression
Background: - The admission of the neonate to a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) leads to significant parental distress. This stress may have adverse consequences not only on mother but also on father. Objectives of the current study were to assess and compare levels of anxiety and depression among such parents, and to study the associated parental and neonatal variables.
Methodology: -In the current comparative cross sectional study a total of 80 pairs of parents (80 mothers and 80 fathers) whose neonate was admitted at NICU for more than 2 weeks at a tertiary health care centre of western Rajasthan, India were included. Participants were those who consented to participate and met inclusion criteria. A semi structured proforma including socio-demographic profile of the parents and clinical parameters of the condition of the neonate was administered along with state-anxiety subscale of the state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI-S) and Beck’s depression inventory (BDI II).
Results: -The majority of parents of were Hindu, from urban background, living in an extended nuclear family. Majority of parents scored no or low anxiety and depression. Scores suggestive of anxiety and depression were found only in few parents. Mean STAI-S score was in mild anxiety for mothers whose neonates were admitted for observation whereas for the rest of the groups it showed nil or low range of anxiety. The Mean BDI II scores were in the range of minimal depression.
Conclusion: - Symptoms of both anxiety and depression in the parents need to be assessed after their neonate is admitted for a significant period in the ICU so that adequate interventions can be administered.
2. Agrawal R, Gaur A. Parent stress in neonatal intensive care unit: an unattended aspect in medical care. Int J Contemp Pediatr 2017;4:148-53.
3. Dhingra P. Newborn in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: Parental Concerns. Journal of Neonatology 34(4) 196–198, 2020
4. Spielberger C. D. (1983). Manual for the State-Trait-Anxiety Inventory: STAI (form Y). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.
5. Kayikcioglu O, Bilgin S, Seymenoglu G, Deveci A. State and Trait Anxiety Scores of Patients Receiving Intravitreal Injections Biomed Hub 2017;2:478993 (DOI: 10.1159/000478993)
6. Knight RG, Waal-Manning HJ, Spears GF. Some norms and reliability data for the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Zung Self-Rating Depression scale. Br J Clin Psychol.1983; 22(4): 245–9.
7. Beck AT, Ward CH, Mendelson M, Mock J, Erbaugh J. An inventory for measuring depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1961 Jun;4:561-71. doi: 10.1001/archpsyc.1961.01710120031004. PMID: 13688369.
8. Beck, A. T., Brown, G., & Steer, R. A. (1996). Beck Depression Inventory II manual. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation
9. Ganguly R, Patnaik L, Sahoo J, Pattanaik S, Sahu T. Assessment of stress among parents of neonates admitted in the neonatal intensive care unit of a tertiary care hospital in Eastern India. J Edu Health Promot 2020;9:288.
10. Niranjan HS, Nijaguna A, Jagadish AS, Naveen Benakappa. Psychological distress in mothers of infants admitted in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Pediatr Rev: Int J Pediatr Res 2015;2(4):125-129.doi:10.17511/ijpr.2015.i04.16
11. Carter JD, Mulder RT, Bartram AF, Darlow BA. Infants in a neonatal intensive care unit: parental response. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2005;90:F109–F113. doi: 10.1136/adc.2003.031641
12. Stremler, R., et al., Psychological Outcomes in Parents of Critically Ill Hospitalized Children, Journal of Pediatric Nursing (2017), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pedn.2017.01.012
13. Suyal H, Malick AKR, Sylvia R, Chauhan V. Psychological morbidity and coping strategy in parents of neonates admitted in neonatal intensive care unit. Global journal for research analysis 9(7) 5-8, 2020
14. Heidarzadeh M, Heidari H, Ahmadi A, Solati K and Sadeghi N. Evaluation of parental stress in neonatal intensive care unit in Iran: a national study. BMC Nursing (2023) 22:41
15. Hagen HI, Svindseth MF, Vasset FP. Parents’ perceived mental distress when their infant is admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) a quantitative cross-sectional study. Research square. August 7th, 2020 DOI: https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.3.rs-42463/v1