Main Article Content

Aqsa Shamim Ahmed
Ayesha Qudus
Asima Munawar
Rabia Karim
Umair Liaqat
Muhammad Farhan Tabassum


CBT, Performance, PRISMA, Systematic Review, Athlete.


This systematic review aimed to examine the role of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in enhancing athletes' performance. A comprehensive search was conducted in electronic databases of PubMed, Medline and ScienceDirect, and relevant studies were selected based on predefined inclusion criteria. A total of 10 studies were included in this review, which varied in terms of intervention type, outcome measures, and study design. The results of this review suggested that CBT interventions can be effective in improving athletes' performance by addressing negative thoughts and behaviors related to sports performance, managing stress and anxiety, eating disorders and other psychological conditions by enhancing motivation, self-efficacy and self-regulation. Moreover, CBT interventions can be tailored to target specific areas of cognitive and behavioral functioning that are relevant to individual athletes' needs and goals. It can be concluded that CBT-based interventions are effective in enhancing the athletic performance. Future research should focus on developing and evaluating tailored, athlete-centered CBT interventions with standardized outcome measures to enhance the effectiveness of CBT in improving athletes' performance.

Abstract 1436 | PDF Downloads 793


1. Broman-Fulks, J. J., Storey, K. M., & Koerner, A. F. (2018). A meta-analytic review of cognitive-behavioral interventions for anxiety in competitive sport. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 40(3), 128-138.
2. Buffington, B. C., Melnyk, B. M., Morales, S., Lords, A., & Zupan, M. R. (2016). Effects of an energy balance educational intervention and the COPE cognitive behavioral therapy intervention for Division I US Air Force Academy female athletes. Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners, 28(4), 181-187.
3. Çakmakçı, E., Mozafarizadeh, M., & Tayebi, S. M. (2020). Cognitive Behavior Therapy Improved the Symptoms of Bulimia Nervosa in the Athletes. Annals of Applied Sport Science, 8(1), 0-0.
4. Coronado, R. A., Sterling, E. K., Fenster, D. E., Bird, M. L., Heritage, A. J., Woosley, V. L., ... & Archer, K. R. (2020). Cognitive-behavioral-based physical therapy to enhance return to sport after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: An open pilot study. Physical Therapy in Sport, 42, 82-90.
5. Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (2021). CASP Randomised Controlled Trial Standard Checklist
6. Didymus, F. F., & Fletcher, D. (2017). Effects of a cognitive-behavioral intervention on field hockey players’ appraisals of organizational stressors. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 30, 173-185.
7. Gustafsson, H., Lundqvist, C., & Tod, D. (2017). Cognitive behavioral intervention in sport psychology: A case illustration of the exposure method with an elite athlete. Journal of Sport Psychology in Action, 8(3), 152-162.
8. Hamid, N., Abdoli, R., & Shahroie, A. (2018). Efficacy of Cognitive Behavior Therapy with Positive Imagination of Success During Hypnotism on Athletic Performance. Hormozgan Medical Journal, 22(4), e86481-e86481.
9. Higgins, J. P., Thomas, J., Chandler, J., Cumpston, M., Li, T., Page, M. J., & Welch, V. A. (Eds.). (2019). Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions. John Wiley & Sons.
10. Hofmann, S. G., Asnaani, A., Vonk, I. J., Sawyer, A. T., & Fang, A. (2012). The efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy: A review of meta-analyses. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 36(5), 427-440.
11. Holm, J. E., Beckwith, B. E., Ehde, D. M., & Tinius, T. P. (1996). Cognitive-behavioral interventions for improving performance in competitive athletes: A controlled treatment outcome study. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 27, 463-475.
12. Isorna-Folgar, M., Leirós-Rodríguez, R., López-Roel, S., & García-Soidán, J. L. (2022, December). Effects of a Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Intervention on the Rowers of the Junior Spain National Team. In Healthcare (Vol. 10, No. 12, p. 2357). Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute.
13. Kirschenbaum, D. S., Ordman, A. M., Tomarken, A. J., & Holtzbauer, R. (1982). Effects of differential self-monitoring and level of mastery on sports performance: Brain power bowling. Cognitive therapy and Research, 6, 335-341.
14. Li, Y., Buys, N., Li, Z., Li, L., Song, Q., & Sun, J. (2021). The efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy-based interventions on patients with hypertension: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Preventive medicine reports, 23, 101477.
15. Lochbaum, M., Stoner, E., Hefner, T., Cooper, S., Lane, A. M., & Terry, P. C. (2022). Sport psychology and performance meta-analyses: A systematic review of the literature. PloS one, 17(2), e0263408.
16. Moher, D., Shamseer, L., Clarke, M., Ghersi, D., Liberati, A., Petticrew, M., ... & Stewart, L. A. (2015). Preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocols (PRISMA-P) 2015 statement. Systematic reviews, 4(1), 1-9.
17. Neil, R., Hanton, S., & Mellalieu, S. D. (2013). Seeing things in a different light: Assessing the effects of a cognitive-behavioral intervention upon the further appraisals and performance of golfers. Journal of applied sport psychology, 25(1), 106-130.
18. Rethlefsen, M. L., & Page, M. J. (2022). PRISMA 2020 and PRISMA-S: common questions on tracking records and the flow diagram. Journal of the Medical Library Association: JMLA, 110(2), 253.
19. Shamseer, L.; Moher, D.; Clarke, M.; Ghersi, D.; Liberati, A.; Petticrew, M.; Shekelle, P.; Stewart, L.A.; PRISMA-P Group. Preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocols (P.RI.SM.A-P) 2015, elaboration and explanation. BMJ 2015, 349, g7647.
20. Stavropoulos, V., Cokorilo, S., Kambouropoulos, A., Collard, J., & Gomez, R. (2019). Cognitive behavioral therapy online for adult depression: a 10 year systematic literature review. Current Psychiatry Research and Reviews Formerly: Current Psychiatry Reviews, 15(3), 152-170.
21. Van Dis, E. A., Van Veen, S. C., Hagenaars, M. A., Batelaan, N. M., Bockting, C. L., Van Den Heuvel, R. M., ... & Engelhard, I. M. (2020). Long-term outcomes of cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety-related disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA psychiatry, 77(3), 265-273.Beck, J. S. (2011). Cognitive behavior therapy: Basics and beyond. Guilford Press.
22. Zhu, L., Wang, C., & Zhuang, J. (2021). Effects of cognitive-behavioral interventions on sport performance: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 33(1), 60-73.