Comparative Evaluation Of Amla, Neem Silver Nanoparticles Based On Anti Inflammatory And Cytotoxic Properties

Main Article Content

P. Niharika
Sandhya Raghu

Keywords

silver, cytotoxicity, leaves, extract, inflammatory

Abstract

Background: With the exponentially growing number of applications across various sectors, silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) have become one of the most sought-after nanoparticles as nanotechnology has advanced. Ag-NPs enhanced products could become more harmful to the environment and living things as a result of greater use.
Materials and Methods: Extract preparation was prepared using neem leaves gathered from the university campus. To properly remove the dust and debris from the leaves' surface, they were extensively washed under running water. They were left in the hot air oven at 600C for 24 to 48 hours after being air dried for 10 days. Then, a fine powder was made from these leaves.And synthesis of nanoparticles and sample preparation for brine shrimp lethality assay was done.
Results: The cytotoxic effect of amla and neem leaves mediated silver nanoparticles was evaluated in five different concentrations (10μL, 20 μL,30 μL,40 μL and 50 μL).Plant extract of silver nanoparticles revealed a high level of cytotoxicity and antiinflammatory properties .This demonstrates that the cytotoxic effect of amla and neem leaf extract-mediated nanoparticles is better even at 80 L . The collected data was tabulated into Microsoft office Excel 2013 transferred to SPSS version 26.0 software (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA) for statistical analysis.
Conclusion: According to our findings, the anti-inflammatory action of aloe vera and neem leaves, aided by silver nanoparticles, has nearly the same impact as traditional medicine and also shows minimal cytotoxicity. Within the limitations of this study we can conclude that this medication may be utilised as an alternative to diclofenac in the future.

Abstract 135 | PDF Downloads 126

References

1. Saini R, Saini S, Sharma S. Nanotechnology: the future medicine. J Cutan Aesthet Surg. 2010 Jan;3(1):32–3.
2. Salata OV. Applications of nanoparticles in biology and medicine. J Nanobiotechnology. 2004 Apr 30;2(1):3.
3. Govindachari TR, Suresh G, Gopalakrishnan G, Banumathy B, Masilamani S. Identification of antifungal compounds from the seed oil ofAzadirachta Indica. Phytoparasitica. 1998 Jun 1;26(2):109–16.
4. Coventry E, Allan EJ. Microbiological and Chemical Analysis of Neem (Azadirachta indica) Extracts: New Data on Antimicrobial Activity. Phytoparasitica. 2001 Oct 1;29(5):441–50.
5. Kher A, Chaurasia SC. Anti fungal activity of essential oils of three medicinal plants. Indian Drugs [Internet]. 1977 [cited 2023 May 5]; Available from: https://agris.fao.org/agris-search/search.do?recordID=US201301280924
6. Bandyopadhyay U, Biswas K, Sengupta A, Moitra P, Dutta P, Sarkar D, et al. Clinical studies on the effect of Neem (Azadirachta indica) bark extract on gastric secretion and gastroduodenal ulcer. Life Sci. 2004 Oct 29;75(24):2867–78.
7. Paul R, Prasad M, Sah NK. Anticancer biology of Azadirachta indica L (neem): a mini review. Cancer Biol Ther. 2011 Sep 15;12(6):467–76.
8. Surjushe A, Vasani R, Saple DG. Aloe vera: a short review. Indian J Dermatol. 2008;53(4):163–6.
9. Atherton P. Aloe vera revisited. British Journal of Phytotherapy.
10. Atherton P. The essential Aloe vera: The actions and the evidence. Mill Enterprises; 1997.
11. Neelakantan P, Grotra D, Sharma S. Retreatability of 2 mineral trioxide aggregate-based root canal sealers: a cone-beam computed tomography analysis. J Endod. 2013 Jul;39(7):893–6.
12. Aldhuwayhi S, Mallineni SK, Sakhamuri S, Thakare AA, Mallineni S, Sajja R, et al. Covid-19 Knowledge and Perceptions Among Dental Specialists: A Cross-Sectional Online Questionnaire Survey. Risk Manag Healthc Policy. 2021 Jul 7;14:2851–61.
13. Sheriff KAH, Ahmed Hilal Sheriff K, Santhanam A. Knowledge and Awareness towards Oral Biopsy among Students of Saveetha Dental College [Internet]. Vol. 11, Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2018. p. 543. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-360x.2018.00101.4
14. Markov A, Thangavelu L, Aravindhan S, Zekiy AO, Jarahian M, Chartrand MS, et al. Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells as a valuable source for the treatment of immune-mediated disorders. Stem Cell Res Ther. 2021 Mar 18;12(1):192.
15. Jayaraj G, Ramani P, Herald J. Sherlin, Premkumar P, Anuja N. Inter-observer agreement in grading oral epithelial dysplasia – A systematic review [Internet]. Vol. 27, Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Medicine, and Pathology. 2015. p. 112–6. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajoms.2014.01.006
16. Paramasivam A, Priyadharsini JV, Raghunandhakumar S, Elumalai P. A novel COVID-19 and its effects on cardiovascular disease. Hypertens Res. 2020 Jul;43(7):729–30.
17. Li Z, Veeraraghavan VP, Mohan SK, Bolla SR, Lakshmanan H, Kumaran S, et al. Apoptotic induction and anti-metastatic activity of eugenol encapsulated chitosan nanopolymer on rat glioma C6 cells via alleviating the MMP signaling pathway [Internet]. Vol. 203, Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology. 2020. p. 111773. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2019.111773
18. Gan H, Zhang Y, Zhou Q, Zheng L, Xie X, Veeraraghavan VP, et al. Zingerone induced caspase-dependent apoptosis in MCF-7 cells and prevents 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced mammary carcinogenesis in experimental rats. J Biochem Mol Toxicol. 2019 Oct;33(10):e22387.
19. Dua K, Wadhwa R, Singhvi G, Rapalli V, Shukla SD, Shastri MD, et al. The potential of siRNA based drug delivery in respiratory disorders: Recent advances and progress. Drug Dev Res. 2019 Sep;80(6):714–30.
20. Mohan M, Jagannathan N. Oral field cancerization: an update on current concepts. Oncol Rev. 2014 Mar 17;8(1):244.
21. Dutt Y, Pandey RP, Dutt M, Gupta A, Vibhuti A, Raj VS, et al. Silver Nanoparticles Phytofabricated through Azadirachta indica: Anticancer, Apoptotic, and Wound-Healing Properties. Antibiotics (Basel) [Internet]. 2023 Jan 9;12(1). Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12010121
22. Arivazhagan S, Balasenthil S, Nagini S. Modulatory effects of garlic and neem leaf extracts on N-methyl-N’-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG)-induced oxidative stress in Wistar rats. Cell Biochem Funct. 2000 Mar;18(1):17–21.
23. Ullah I, Khalil AT, Ali M, Iqbal J, Ali W, Alarifi S, et al. Green-Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles Induced Apoptotic Cell Death in MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells by Generating Reactive Oxygen Species and Activating Caspase 3 and 9 Enzyme Activities. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2020 Oct 5;2020:1215395.
24. Cairns RA, Harris IS, Mak TW. Regulation of cancer cell metabolism. Nat Rev Cancer. 2011 Feb;11(2):85–95.
25. Zhang Y, Cheng X, Zhang Y, Xue X, Fu Y. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles at room temperature using aqueous aloe leaf extract and antibacterial properties. Colloids Surf A Physicochem Eng Asp. 2013 Apr 20;423:63–8.
26. Cui L, Chen P, Chen S, Yuan Z, Yu C, Ren B, et al. In situ study of the antibacterial activity and mechanism of action of silver nanoparticles by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. Anal Chem. 2013 Jun 4;85(11):5436–43.
27. Zhang Y, Yang D, Kong Y, Wang X, Pandoli O, Gao G. Synergetic antibacterial effects of silver nanoparticles@ aloe vera prepared via a green method. Nano Biomed Eng. 2010;2(4):252–7.
28. Yagi A, Kabash A, Okamura N, Haraguchi H, Moustafa SM, Khalifa TI. Antioxidant, free radical scavenging and anti-inflammatory effects of aloesin derivatives in Aloe vera. Planta Med. 2002 Nov;68(11):957–60.
29. Thu K, Mon YY, Khaing TA, Tun OM. Study on Phytochemical Properties, Antibacterial Activity and Cytotoxicity of Aloe vera L. International Journal of Biotechnology and Bioengineering. 2013;7(5):285–9.
30. Aldhuwayhi, Sami, Sreekanth Kumar Mallineni, Srinivasulu Sakhamuri, Amar Ashok Thakare, Sahana Mallineni, Rishitha Sajja, Mallika Sethi, Venkatesh Nettam, and Azher Mohiuddin Mohammad. 2021. “Covid-19 Knowledge and Perceptions Among Dental Specialists: A Cross-Sectional Online Questionnaire Survey.” Risk Management and Healthcare Policy 14 (July): 2851–61.
31. Dua, Kamal, Ridhima Wadhwa, Gautam Singhvi, Vamshikrishna Rapalli, Shakti Dhar Shukla, Madhur D. Shastri, Gaurav Gupta, et al. 2019. “The Potential of siRNA Based Drug Delivery in Respiratory Disorders: Recent Advances and Progress.” Drug Development Research 80 (6): 714–30.
32. Gan, Hongyun, Yaqing Zhang, Qingyun Zhou, Lierui Zheng, Xiaofeng Xie, Vishnu Priya Veeraraghavan, and Surapaneni Krishna Mohan. 2019. “Zingerone Induced Caspase-Dependent Apoptosis in MCF-7 Cells and Prevents 7,12-Dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-Induced Mammary Carcinogenesis in Experimental Rats.” Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology 33 (10): e22387.
33. Jayaraj, Gifrina, Pratibha Ramani, Herald J. Sherlin, Priya Premkumar, and N. Anuja. 2015. “Inter-Observer Agreement in Grading Oral Epithelial Dysplasia – A Systematic Review.” Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Medicine, and Pathology.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajoms.2014.01.006.
34. Li, Zhenjiang, Vishnu Priya Veeraraghavan, Surapaneni Krishna Mohan, Srinivasa Rao Bolla, Hariprasath Lakshmanan, Subramanian Kumaran, Wilson Aruni, et al. 2020. “Apoptotic Induction and Anti-Metastatic Activity of Eugenol Encapsulated Chitosan Nanopolymer on Rat Glioma C6 Cells via Alleviating the MMP Signaling Pathway.” Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2019.111773.
35. Markov, Alexander, Lakshmi Thangavelu, Surendar Aravindhan, Angelina Olegovna Zekiy, Mostafa Jarahian, Max Stanley Chartrand, Yashwant Pathak, Faroogh Marofi, Somayeh Shamlou, and Ali Hassanzadeh. 2021. “Mesenchymal Stem/stromal Cells as a Valuable Source for the Treatment of Immune-Mediated Disorders.” Stem Cell Research & Therapy 12 (1): 192.
36. Mohan, Meenakshi, and Nithya Jagannathan. 2014. “Oral Field Cancerization: An Update on Current Concepts.” Oncology Reviews 8 (1): 244.
37. Neelakantan, Prasanna, Deeksha Grotra, and Subash Sharma. 2013. “Retreatability of 2 Mineral Trioxide Aggregate-Based Root Canal Sealers: A Cone-Beam Computed Tomography Analysis.” Journal of Endodontia 39 (7): 893–96.
38. Paramasivam, Arumugam, Jayaseelan Vijayashree Priyadharsini, Subramanian Raghunandhakumar, and Perumal Elumalai. 2020. “A Novel COVID-19 and Its Effects on Cardiovascular Disease.” Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension.
39. Sheriff, K. Ahmed Hilal, K. Ahmed Hilal Sheriff, and Archana Santhanam. 2018. “Knowledge and Awareness towards Oral Biopsy among Students of Saveetha Dental College.” Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. https://doi.org/10.5958/0974-360x.2018.00101.4.