Rugoscopy pattern and its relation with dental caries and the permanent molar relationship among dental students - A cross sectional study

Main Article Content

Sarika Balaganesh
Leelavathi L
Meignana Arumugham Indhiran


Rugoscopy ,Dental caries, Malocclusion


Introduction: Rugae pattern can be used as an identification tool in forensic dentistry as the palate is the most intact structure among the other parts of Human body. This study was designed on the purpose to determine whether rugae pattern can be used as a predictive tool in the identification of Dental Caries and Malocclusion status.
Materials and Methods: Rugae pattern was analysed by taking the upper elastomeric impression and pouring cast using dental stone. The rugae pattern was studied using Thomas and Kotze classification. For determining the dental caries prevalence DMFT index was recorded. Malocclusion status was determined by Angle’s classification of Malocclusion.
Results: Curved rugae pattern was predominant among the Tamil population and Circular pattern was predominant among the Telugu population. No significant association was seen between the rugae pattern and dental caries, malocclusion status.
Conclusion: According to the results of this study, Rugae pattern cannot be used as a predictive factor to dental caries and malocclusion status determination.

Abstract 341 | PDF Downloads 209


1. Gupta, T., Sharma, M. and Garg, N., 2015. Role of cheiloscopy, rugoscopy, and dactyloscopy for human identification.
2. Mutalik, V.S., Menon, A., Jayalakshmi, N., Kamath, A. and Raghu, A.R., 2013. Utility of cheiloscopy, rugoscopy, and dactyloscopy for human identification in a defined cohort. Journal of forensic dental sciences, 5(1), p.2.
3. AC, K., 2019. Comparing the Potential Role of Palatal Rugae Pattern in Paternal Testing-A Cross Sectional Study. Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology, 13(2). 4. Shetty, D., Juneja, A., Jain, A., Khanna, K.S., Pruthi, N., Gupta, A. and Chowdhary, M., 2013. Assessment of palatal rugae pattern and their reproducibility for application in forensic analysis. Journal of forensic dental sciences, 5(2), p.106.
5. Indira, A.P., Gupta, M. and David, M.P., 2012. Usefullness of palatal rugae patterns in establishing identity: Preliminary results from Bengaluru city, India. Journal of forensic dental sciences, 4(1), p.2.
6. Swetha, S., 2015. Palatal rugae pattern in varied adult Indian population of males and females. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, 7(9), p.736.
7. Jain, A. and Chowdhary, R., 2014. Palatal rugae and their role in forensic odontology. Journal of investigative and clinical dentistry, 5(3), pp.171-178.
8. Jain, A. and Chowdhary, R., 2014. Palatal rugae and their role in forensic odontology. Journal of investigative and clinical dentistry, 5(3), pp.171-178.
9. Chitroda, P., Katti, G., Ghali, S. and Baba, I.A., 2013. Palatal Rugae Pattern as an Aid for Personal Identification: A Review. Medico-Legal Update, 13(1).
10. Freitas, J.A.D.S., Garib, D.G., Oliveira, M., Lauris, R.D.C.M.C., Almeida, A.L.P.F.D., Neves, L.T., Trindade-Suedam, I.K., Yaedú, R.Y.F., Soares, S. and Pinto, J.H.N., 2012. Rehabilitative treatment of cleft lip and palate: experience of the Hospital for Rehabilitation of Craniofacial Anomalies-USP (HRAC-USP)-Part 2: Pediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics. Journal of Applied Oral Science, 20, pp.268-281.
11. Lalitya, D., Srinivasan, I., Setty, J.V., Pamnani, S., Dindukurthi, M.K. and Allani, S., 2019. Rugoscopy as a gender determination tool and its appositeness in malocclusion among adolescents aged 13–18 years. International Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry, 12(4), p.307.
12. Wolf, T.G., Cagetti, M.G., Fisher, J.M., Seeberger, G.K. and Campus, G., 2021. Non-communicable diseases and oral health: An overview. Frontiers in oral health, 2.
13. Angle, E.H., 1900. Treatment of Malocclusion of the Teeth and Fractures of the Maxillae: Angle's System. White Dental Manufacturing Company.
14. Baskaradoss, J.K., Geevarghese, A., Alsaadi, W., Alemam, H., Alghaihab, A., Almutairi, A.S. and Almthen, A., 2022. The impact of malocclusion on the oral health related quality of life of 11–14-year-old children. BMC pediatrics, 22(1), pp.1-6.
15. Subramani, P., Lakshmi, Y.S., Sarika, K. and Shalini, S., 2022. Association Between Palatal Rugae Pattern And Dental Caries Among The General Population: A Cross‑Sectional Study. International Journal of Forensic Odontology, 7(2), pp.20-25.
16. Sekhon, H.K., Sircar, K., Singh, S., Jawa, D. and Sharma, P., 2014. Determination of the biometric characteristics of palatine rugae patterns in Uttar Pradesh population: a cross-sectional study. Indian Journal of Dental Research, 25(3), p.331.
17. Byatnal, A., Byatnal, A., Kiran, A.R., Samata, Y., Guruprasad, Y. and Telagi, N., 2014. Palatoscopy: An adjunct to forensic odontology: A comparative study among five different populations of India. Journal of natural science, biology, and medicine, 5(1), p.52.
18. Surekha, R., Anila, K., Reddy, V., Hunasgi, S., Ravikumar, S. and Ramesh, N., 2012. Assessment of palatal rugae patterns in Manipuri and Kerala population. Journal of forensic dental sciences, pp.93-96.
19. Goyal, S. and Goyal, S., 2013. Study of palatal rugae pattern of Rwandan patients attending the dental department at King Faisal hospital, Kigali, Rwanda: a preliminary study. Rwanda Med J, 70(1), pp.19-25.
20. Agarwal, M., Alex, A. and Konde, S., 2018. Relationship between dermatoglyphics, cheiloscopy, rugoscopy, and dental caries: A cross-sectional study in Bengaluru, Karnataka. Contemporary Clinical Dentistry, 9(4), p.577.
21. Ashok, V. and Ganapathy, D., 2019. A geometrical method to classify face forms. Journal of oral biology and craniofacial research, 9(3), pp.232-235.
22. Pandian, K.S., Krishnan, S. and Kumar, S.A., 2018. Angular photogrammetric analysis of the soft-tissue facial profile of Indian adults. Indian J Dent Res, 29(2), pp.137-43.
23. Ravindra, V., Rekha, C.V., Annamalai, S., Sharmin, D.D. and Norouzi-Baghkomeh, P., 2019. A comparative evaluation between cheiloscopic patterns and the permanent molar relationships to predict the future malocclusions. Journal of clinical and experimental dentistry, 11(6), p.e553.
24. Ravindra, V., Rekha, V., Annamalai, S., Sharmin, D. and Norouzi-Baghkomeh, P., 2018. A comparative evaluation between dermatoglyphic patterns and different terminal planes in primary dentition. Journal of clinical and experimental dentistry, 10(12), p.e1149.
25. Charles, A., Ramani, P., Sherlin, H.J., Dilip, S., Srinivas, S. and Jayaraj, G., 2018. Evaluation of dermatoglyphic patterns using digital scanner technique in skeletal malocclusion: A descriptive study. Indian Journal of Dental Research, 29(6), p.711.
26. Muruganandan, J., Priya, V.V. and Shamsudeen, S.M., 2018. Knowledge and attitude among senior dental students on forensic dentistry: A survey. World Journal of Dentistry, 9(3), pp.187-191.
27. Arvind TR, P. and Felicita, A.S., 2021. Correlation between collum angle and lower lip position in different Class II malocclusions-A retrospective cephalometric study. Orthodontic Waves, 80(2), pp.81-86.
28. Sreenivasagan, S. and Sivakumar, A., 2021. FSA Angle: A Soft Tissue Approach for Assessing Sagittal Skeletal Discrepancy. International Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry, 14(Suppl 1), p.S54.
29. Murugesan, A. and Sivakumar, A., 2020. Comparison of accuracy of mesiodistal tooth measurements made in conventional study models and digital models obtained from intraoral scan and desktop scan of study models. Journal of Orthodontics, 47(2), pp.149-155.
30. Venugopal, A., Ghoussoub, M.S., Manzano, P., Mehta, P., Marya, A., Vaid, N.R., Ludwig, B. and Bowman, S.J., 2021. Molar protraction on an adult with severe high-angle class III
malocclusion and knife-edge residual ridges. Orthodontic Waves, 80(3), pp.161-169.
31. Murugesan, A. and Jain, R.K., 2020. A 3D comparison of dimension of infrazygomatic crest region in different vertical skeletal patterns: A retrospective study. International orthodontics, 18(4), pp.770-775.
32. Varghese, R.M., Subramanian, A.K. and Sreenivasagan, S., 2021. Comparison of dentoskeletal changes in skeletal class II cases using two different fixed functional appliances: Forsus fatigue resistant device and powerscope class II corrector—A clinical study. J Int Oral Health, 13(3), p.234.
33. Kumar, M.S., 2021. Dermatoglyphic Pattern Configurations: A Review. Int J Dentistry Oral Sci, 8(6), pp.2816-2827.
34. Kumar, M.S., 2021. Role of Dermatoglyphics as a Diagnostic Tool in Syndromes and Systemic Disorders. Int J Dentistry Oral Sci, 8(5), pp.2390-2400.
35. binti Shahroom, N.S., Jain, R.K. and Nasim, I., 2021. Prevalence and Associated Factors for Crossbite Malocclusion in South Indian Subjects-A Retrospective Study. Int J Dentistry Oral Sci, 8(8), pp.4109-4113.