Seropositivity for toxoplasmosis and other protozoan infections in patients with ocular diseases in Kirkuk Province, Iraq

Main Article Content

Alaa Abbas Hasan
Sadia Shahab Hamad
Yahya Jirjees Salman

Keywords

Toxoplasma, Chlamydia, Conjunctivitis, Keratitis and ELISA

Abstract

Background: Toxoplasmosis, a zoonotic disease, has serious consequences for human health, including the development of ocular issues such conjunctivitis and chorioretinitis.
Setting: A cross-sectional study carried on 156 patients with ocular problems (92 men and 64 females).
Methodology: Following the completion of a questionnaire, blood samples were taken for serology (ELISA), two ocular swabs for direct microscopy and culture, and further blood specimens for hematology. Auramine and calcofluor luminous stains were also used .
Results: The overall rate of infectious agents was 46.69%, according to the findings. Toxoplasma gondii, Chlamydia trachomatis, protozoan parasites, yeast, Human Herpes Simplex virus, bacteria, and Syphilis were found in 78.20%, 71.69%, 32.69%, 32.69%, 29.10%, 24.35%, and 23.35% of those who tested positive Seropositive toxoplasmosis was common, especially IgM antibody, which was 26.67% in elderly patients and 11.11 % in one-year-to-15-year olds. unlike Toxo-IgG Abs. The rates of ocular infections caused by other protozoa were 17.68%, 11.10% for Microsporidia and Acanthamoeba, and 3.42 % for Naegleria fowleri. Microsporidia distribution with patient age was statistically significant, particularly for younger patients. Toxo-IgM was linked to a large number of cases of keratitis, but Toxo-IgG was linked to cases of conjunctivitis. The link between patient blood group and toxoplasmosis incidence was considerable; blood group O was dominant when compared to other ABO blood groups.
Conclusions: In Kirkuk Province, the prevalence of toxoplasmosis among individuals with eye problems is high. Soil- and water-dwelling amoebas and microsporidia have been related to eye infections.

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