Seropositivity for toxoplasmosis and other protozoan infections in patients with ocular diseases in Kirkuk Province, Iraq

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Alaa Abbas Hasan
Sadia Shahab Hamad
Yahya Jirjees Salman


Toxoplasma, Chlamydia, Conjunctivitis, Keratitis and ELISA


Background: Toxoplasmosis, a zoonotic disease, has serious consequences for human health, including the development of ocular issues such conjunctivitis and chorioretinitis.
Setting: A cross-sectional study carried on 156 patients with ocular problems (92 men and 64 females).
Methodology: Following the completion of a questionnaire, blood samples were taken for serology (ELISA), two ocular swabs for direct microscopy and culture, and further blood specimens for hematology. Auramine and calcofluor luminous stains were also used .
Results: The overall rate of infectious agents was 46.69%, according to the findings. Toxoplasma gondii, Chlamydia trachomatis, protozoan parasites, yeast, Human Herpes Simplex virus, bacteria, and Syphilis were found in 78.20%, 71.69%, 32.69%, 32.69%, 29.10%, 24.35%, and 23.35% of those who tested positive Seropositive toxoplasmosis was common, especially IgM antibody, which was 26.67% in elderly patients and 11.11 % in one-year-to-15-year olds. unlike Toxo-IgG Abs. The rates of ocular infections caused by other protozoa were 17.68%, 11.10% for Microsporidia and Acanthamoeba, and 3.42 % for Naegleria fowleri. Microsporidia distribution with patient age was statistically significant, particularly for younger patients. Toxo-IgM was linked to a large number of cases of keratitis, but Toxo-IgG was linked to cases of conjunctivitis. The link between patient blood group and toxoplasmosis incidence was considerable; blood group O was dominant when compared to other ABO blood groups.
Conclusions: In Kirkuk Province, the prevalence of toxoplasmosis among individuals with eye problems is high. Soil- and water-dwelling amoebas and microsporidia have been related to eye infections.

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