Some Epidemiological Aspects of Cryptosporidium parvum Among Children Below Five Years in Kirkuk Province

Main Article Content

Hiba Khider Askar
Yahya Jirjees Salman
AbdulKhaliq Alwan Mohiemeed

Keywords

Cryptosporidium, gastroenteritis, Auramine, Calcofluor, Entamoeba

Abstract

Background: Intestinal protozoan parasite infection impacted malnutrition, public health, and young children. The zoonotic pathogen Cryptosporidium spp. generates diarrhea in immunocompetent and immunocompromised hosts. Its global burden, epidemiology, diagnosis, and management are poorly understood.
Setting: A cross-sectional study of 330 under-5 years with gastroenteritis (177 men and 153 females).
Methodology: After each patient completed a questionnaire, stool samples were obtained for Modified Ziehl-Neelsen, direct microscopy, concentration, the flotation technique), and fluorescent stains.
Results: 204 stool samples had 61.68 percent Cryptosporidium. This rate involved: 65.35 percent in females against 58.75 percent in males (p > 0.05), although the association between male age and cryptosporidium frequency was significant (p 0.05). Samples from children under one year and one to two years had high rates of 32.35 percent and 26.24 percent, respectively, compared to older children. P<0.05. Artificially fed children had 43.07% Cryptosporidium compared to 16.93% breastfed; (P <0.05). Children drinking mineral sterile water and tank water had stool rates of 59.63 % and 35.79 %, respectively, compared to 4.58 % for municipal water; P<0.05. Alkaline stool samples had 26.31 percent cryptosporidiosis, p<0.05. Patient residency did not affect Cryptosporidium dispersion. Diarrhea-associated Cryptosporidium positivity was 62.26 percent compared to 37.74 percent in non-diarrheic stools, especially in infants under one year. Entamoeba histolytica (19.74%), Blastocystis hominis (9.8%), and Giardia lamblia (6.37%) were other frequent intestinal parasites. Cryptosporidium was easily visible using modified Ziehl-Neelsen, Calcofluor, and Auramine methods.
Conclusions: In Kirkuk Province, children under five had the most gastroenteritis due to Cryptosporidium parvum infection. Age, feeding, and water intake are factors.

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