Pharmacological management of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women: The current state of the art

Main Article Content

Davide Gatti
Angelo Fassio


osteoporosis, bone metabolism, bone mineral density, bisphosphonate, teriparatide, alendronate, zoledronate, risedronate, clodronate, hormonal therapy, TSEC, denosumab, romosozumab, strontium ranelate, combination therapy, sequential therapy


Osteoporosis is a common disease that increases fracture risk. Fragility fractures bring heavy consequences in terms of mortality and disability, with burdensome health and social costs. In subjects with clinical bone fragility, the first goal is to identify the secondary forms of osteoporosis, especially in young subjects, in males and in patients who recently experienced a fragility fracture. In addition, before considering any sort of treatment, it is fundamental to check for adequate calcium and vitamin D intake, since their deficiency is the most common reason for drug failure.

In the last decade of the 20th century, several molecules have been developed and proved to be effective in achieving the true goal of any antiosteoporotic drug: fracture prevention.

In this article, we considered the most commonly prescribed antiresorptive drugs (hormonal therapy, bisphosphonates, and denosumab), the anabolic agents (teriparatide), the dual-action drugs (romosozumab), and the drugs characterized by an unclear mechanism of action (strontium ranelate) to provide physicians with useful insights for their clinical practice. We discussed the main criteria for the appropriate choice selection and management of each treatment. Finally, we addressed the current controversies related to treatment discontinuation, sequential, and combination therapy.

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