Main Article Content

Heeramani Lohana
Sarwat Urooj
Mansoor Abro
Maria Nazish
Hussain Shah
Sheraz Ahmed
Fayaz Umrani
Ambreen Memon


Preterm, Retinopathy of prematurity, Risk factors


This retrospective study aims to describe the frequency and risk factors for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) identified through the establishment of the first neonatal screening program for ROP at Aga Khan Maternal and Childcare Center, a secondary-level hospital in Hyderabad, Pakistan. Medical records of preterm infants admitted between January to December 2014 with a gestational age ≤34 weeks or birth weight ≤2000g were reviewed. A total of 158 infants who underwent retinal screening between 4-6 weeks of age using indirect ophthalmoscopy were included, of which ROP was detected in 27 infants (17%) across stages I-IV. Key risk factors observed for ROP included oxygen therapy, sepsis, anemia and low birth weight. This study provides valuable data on the burden of ROP at a secondary care center in Pakistan and emphasizes the importance of screening programs for early detection and management to prevent ROP-associated blindness, especially given advancing neonatal care in low resource settings.

Abstract 83 | Pdf Downloads 18


1. Blencowe H, Lawn JE, Vazquez T, Fielder A, Gilbert C. Preterm-associated visual impairment and estimates of retinopathy of prematurity at regional and global levels for 2010. Pediatr Res. 2013 Dec;74 Suppl 1(Suppl 1):35-49. doi: 10.1038/pr.2013.205. PMID: 24366462; PMCID: PMC3873709
2. BEDROSSIAN RH, CARMICHAEL P, RITTER J. Retinopathy of prematurity (retrolental fibroplasia) and oxygen. I. Clinical study. II. Further observations on the disease. Am J Ophthalmol. 1954 Jan;37(1):78-86.
3. Karna, P.; Muttineni, J.; Angell, L.; Karmaus, W. (2005). "Retinopathy of prematurity and risk factors: A prospective cohort study". BMC Pediatrics. 5 (1): 18. doi:10.1186/1471-2431-5-18. PMC 1175091. PMID 15985170.
4. Padmani Karna, Jyotsna M, Linda A. Retinopathy of prematurity and risk factors: a prospective cohort study. BMC Paediatrics 2005; 5:18
5. Hong EH, Shin YU, Cho H. Retinopathy of prematurity: a review of epidemiology and current treatment strategies. Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022 Mar;65(3):115-126. doi: 10.3345/cep.2021.00773. Epub 2021 Oct 12. PMID: 34645255; PMCID: PMC8898617.
6. Sen P, Wu WC, Chandra P, Vinekar A, Manchegowda PT, Bhende P. Retinopathy of prematurity treatment: Asian perspectives. Eye. 2020;34(4):632–642. doi: 10.1038/s41433-019-0643-4
7. Abdel HA, Mohamed GB, Othman MF. Retinopathy of Prematurity: A Study of Incidence and Risk Factors in NICU of Al-Minya University Hospital in Egypt. J Clin Neonatol. 2012 Apr;1(2):76-81. doi: 10.4103/2249-4847.96755. PMID: 24027695; PMCID: PMC3743140.
8. Murthy KR, Nagendra, Babu K, Bena kappa N, Niranjan, Murthy PR. Analysis of risk factors for the development of ROP in preterm infants at tertiary referral hospital in South India. Acta Medica
9. Shah VA, Yeo CL, Ling YL, Ho LY. Incidence, risk factors of retinopathy of prematurity among very low birth weight infants in Singapore. Ann Acad Med Singap. 2005 Mar;34(2):169-78. PMID: 15827664
10. Taqui AM, Syed R, Chaudhry TA, Ahmad K, Salat MS. Retinopathy of prematurity: frequency and risk factors in a tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. J Pak Med Assoc. 2008 Apr;58(4):186-90. PMID: 18655427.