Main Article Content

Mahroona Afzal
Warda Mustafa
Alina Rafique
Aleena Javed
Fatima Tariq


Salmonella, antimicrobial resistance, goat meat, food safety, knowledge attitudes practices, Rawalpindi, Punjab


Salmonella poses a significant public health threat, with infected raw meat products, such as goat meat, being a common transmission route. The emergence of antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella strains complicates treatment and heightens global health risks. This study aims to assess the prevalence of Salmonella in raw goat meat in Rawalpindi, Punjab, and to analyze antibiotic resistance patterns alongside the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) related to meat safety among abattoir workers, butchers, and consumers.

Conducted between August 2019 and February 2020, this cross-sectional study involved microbiological testing of goat carcasses and a KAP survey of individuals handling goat meat. Salmonella was isolated and identified using ISO methods, and antibiotic susceptibility was determined via the disc diffusion method. Data were statistically analyzed using SPSS.

The findings revealed that 38.0% of the Salmonella isolates were resistant to Ampicillin, 28.4% to Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, and 18.2% to Gentamicin. The KAP survey highlighted deficiencies in sanitary practices, training, and awareness among meat handlers. Specifically, most abattoir workers and butchers did not use clean equipment or practice proper handwashing. Consumers also exhibited limited understanding of the risks associated with raw and improperly handled meat.

This study identifies a high prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella in raw goat meat and highlights significant gaps in public knowledge and hygiene practices among meat industry workers. It underscores the need for enhanced surveillance, prudent antibiotic use, and public health education to mitigate the risks associated with raw goat meat consumption and to combat the spread of antimicrobial resistance.


Abstract 54 | PDF Downloads 11


1. Pal M, Merera O, Abera F, Rahman M, Hazarika R. Salmonellosis: A major foodborne disease of global significance. Beverage Food World. 2015;42(12):21-4.
2. Rahman HS, Mahmoud BM, Othman HH, Amin K. A review of history, definition, classification, source, transmission, and pathogenesis of salmonella: a model for human infection. Journal of Zankoy Sulaimani. 2018;20(3-4):11-9.
3. Humphrey T, Jørgensen F. Pathogens on meat and infection in animals–Establishing a relationship using Campylobacter and Salmonella as examples. Meat science. 2006;74(1):89-97.
4. Havelaar AH, Kirk MD, Torgerson PR, Gibb HJ, Hald T, Lake RJ, et al. World Health Organization global estimates and regional comparisons of the burden of foodborne disease in 2010. PLoS medicine. 2015;12(12):e1001923.
5. Scallan E, Hoekstra RM, Angulo FJ, Tauxe RV, Widdowson M-A, Roy SL, et al. Foodborne illness acquired in the United States—major pathogens. Emerging infectious diseases. 2011;17(1):7.
6. Casey NH, Webb EC. Managing goat production for meat quality. Small Ruminant Research. 2010;89(2-3):218-24.
7. Vidovic N, Vidovic S. Antimicrobial resistance and food animals: Influence of livestock environment on the emergence and dissemination of antimicrobial resistance. Antibiotics. 2020;9(2):52.
8. Organization WH. Global action plan on antimicrobial resistance. 2015.
9. Sharma C, Rokana N, Chandra M, Singh BP, Gulhane RD, Gill JPS, et al. Antimicrobial resistance: its surveillance, impact, and alternative management strategies in dairy animals. Frontiers in veterinary science. 2018;4:237.
10. Stopforth JD, Sofos JN, Taylor SL, Baumert JL. 10 Food Safety Issues in Animal Source Foods Related to Animal Health and Welfare. Animal Welfare in Animal Agriculture. 2011:205.
11. Alimi BA, Lawal R, Odetunde ON. Food safety and microbiological hazards associated with retail meat at butchery outlets in north-central Nigeria. Food Control. 2022;139:109061.
12. Hussain MA, Wang W, Sun C, Gu L, Liu Z, Yu T, et al. Molecular Characterization of pathogenic Salmonella spp from raw beef in Karachi, Pakistan. Antibiotics. 2020;9(2).
13. Gutema FD, Agga GE, Abdi RD, Jufare A, Duchateau L, De Zutter L, Gabriël S. Assessment of hygienic practices in beef cattle slaughterhouses and retail shops in bishoftu, ethiopia: Implications for public health. International journal of environmental research and public health. 2021;18(5):2729.
14. Skaarup T. Slaughterhouse cleaning and sanitation. 1985.

Most read articles by the same author(s)