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Huba Khalid
Muhammad Imran Hussain
Fatima Naveed
Ruhab Zulfiqar
Moha Akram Khan
Samia Anwar
Nida Zahid
Farah Qaisar
Tashfeen bin Asif
Sania Khalid


Lactation, Breastfeeding, Calcium, Vitamin D3, BMD T and Z scores.


Lactation is a physiological process of milk secretion that involves many physiological factors that possess strong potential to influence bone mineral density (BMD) which is the best tool to analyze the fracture rate in later life. This study investigates the combined effect of Vitamin D and Calcium supplementation on lactation and maternal BMD. This is randomized controlled trial study. The study involved 60 patients (lactating mothers) divided into a treatment group. They were divided into treatment group (Calcium (1000mg) and Vitamin D (400IU) supplementation) and a control group (placebo) comprising thirty patients per group. The mean age in control group and treatment group is 32± 6.5 and 32±6.3years respectively. Statistical analysis revealed that the treatment group had a mean serum calcium level of 10.12±0.429 (P<0.001), serum vitamin D3 level 13.30±2.23 (P=0.003), BMD T score -2.32±0.376 (P=0.03), and Z score -2.55±0.40 (P=0.028). These results showed statistically significant effect of vitamin D and calcium supplement on serum calcium and 25-hydroxy vitamin D level which substantially increased the BMD values (T-scores) (Z-scores) for patients in the treatment group. Combined supplementation of calcium and vitamin D improved the BMD during early lactation which can delay osteoporosis and osteopenia.

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