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Waheed Ahmed Shah
Ashif Sajjad
Ghulam Razaque
Saqiba Tahir
Fareeda Behlil
Kulsoom Baloch
Irshad Ali
Muhammad Arsalan
Samreen Shabbir


Atomic absorption, Infrared Spectroscopy, Kidney stone, clinical Characteristics, Trace elements.


Urolithiasis is a prevalent urological disorder worldwide, ranking third in frequency, and causing significant impact on individuals' quality of life. However, the underlying causes of this condition remain unknown. This study comprises two phases: a cross-sectional, time-bound survey conducted at two tertiary care public hospitals between June and November 2019, with over 1200 patients diagnosed with various kidney stone diseases. The study investigated the clinical characteristics, dietary habits, disease diagnosis, and management of the participants. The second phase of the study involved laboratory testing, sample preparation, and analysis using infrared spectroscopy and atomic absorption spectroscopy. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS Statistics software. The results revealed that the majority of respondents were middle-aged females who were married, lived in Quetta, and were uneducated. Most respondents had a history of previous visits to the hospital for kidney-related issues. The spectroscopic analysis demonstrated that kidney stones in Pakistan are predominantly composed of calcium oxalate and acid urates, with oxalates found in conjunction with apatite. It is recommended that patients and the community at large be educated about kidney stones and their implications for health.

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