A STUDY TO ASSESS THE RISK FACTORS AND CLINICAL CONDITIONS ASSOCIATED WITH PHYSIOLOGICAL JAUNDICE PROGRESSING TO PATHOLOGICAL JAUNDICE IN NEONATES

Main Article Content

Dr. Prashant Kumar
Dr. Monisha sahai

Keywords

neonatal jaundice, physiological jaundice, pathological jaundice, risk factors, clinical conditions

Abstract

Background: Neonatal jaundice is a common condition, with physiological jaundice affecting up to 60-80% of newborns. However, some neonates may progress to pathological jaundice, leading to serious complications if left untreated. This study aimed to assess the risk factors and clinical conditions associated with the progression of physiological jaundice to pathological jaundice in neonates.


Methods: A prospective observational study was conducted in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) and obstetric ward at JNU hospital from April 2023 to March 2024. The study included 100 neonates with physiological jaundice. Risk factors and clinical conditions were assessed, and serum bilirubin levels were monitored. Statistical analysis was performed using appropriate tests.


Results: Of the 100 neonates, 85% had physiological jaundice, and 15% progressed to pathological jaundice. Prematurity (aOR: 4.82, 95% CI: 1.12-20.76, p = 0.035) and low birth weight (aOR: 4.15, 95% CI: 1.06-16.29, p = 0.041) were significant risk factors for the progression to pathological jaundice. Sepsis (20%), hypothyroidism (13.3%), polycythemia (13.3%), and cephalhematoma (20%) were the most common clinical conditions associated with the progression to pathological jaundice. The mean time to progression was 72.4 ± 18.2 hours.


Conclusion: Prematurity, low birth weight, sepsis, hypothyroidism, and cephalhematoma were significant risk factors for the progression of physiological jaundice to pathological jaundice in neonates. Early identification and close monitoring of neonates with these risk factors are essential for timely intervention and prevention of complications.

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