EXPLORING AUTONOMIC DYSFUNCTION: INVESTIGATING ITS COMPREHENSIVE IMPACT ON CARDIOVASCULAR AND NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS, REVEALING MECHANISMS, CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE, AND TREATMENT APPROACHES IN A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW ARTICLE

Main Article Content

Dr Umaid Hassan Malik
Dr Absar Khalid Mir
Dr Ayesha Khan Baloch
Dr Usama Zahid Raja
Dr Taimur ul Islam
Dr Fatima Hayat
Mohammad Ahmad Abbasi
Dr Muhammad Ali Hassan

Keywords

Autonomic Dysfunction, Cardiovascular Disorders, Neurological Disorders, Mechanisms, Treatment Approaches

Abstract

This review article explores the multifaceted nature of autonomic dysfunction and its impact on cardiovascular and neurological disorders. The autonomic nervous system (ANS) maintains physiological balance by regulating vital functions. Dysfunction within the ANS, characterized by dysregulation of sympathetic and parasympathetic activity, manifests in various clinical symptoms and contributes to the pathophysiology of numerous cardiovascular and neurological diseases.


The review delves into the mechanisms underlying autonomic dysfunction, encompassing primary autonomic disorders, neurological conditions, cardiovascular diseases, and systemic illnesses. A range of diagnostic approaches are explored, including clinical evaluation, autonomic function tests, and advanced imaging modalities. The article also highlights various therapeutic strategies, encompassing pharmacological interventions, non-pharmacological approaches, and emerging therapies.The clinical significance of autonomic dysfunction is emphasized, with its association with increased morbidity and mortality in cardiovascular and neurological disorders. Challenges in managing autonomic dysfunction are acknowledged, including limited awareness, variable diagnostic criteria, and a lack of standardized treatment protocols. Future directions for research and clinical practice are proposed, focusing on elucidating the genetic basis of the disease, exploring novel therapeutic targets, and integrating digital health technologies for personalized management.


By fostering collaboration between clinicians, researchers, and patient advocacy groups, the authors emphasize the importance of advancing knowledge and improving outcomes for patients affected by autonomic dysfunction and associated cardiovascular and neurological disorders.

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15. Grassi G, Esler M. How to assess sympathetic activity in humans. J Hypertens. 1999;17(6):719-734.
16. Goldstein DS. Dysautonomias: clinical disorders of the autonomic nervous system. Ann Intern Med. 1999;131(9):710-722.
17. Jänig W, Häbler HJ. Neurophysiological analysis of target-related sympathetic pathways—from animal to human: similarities and differences. Acta Physiol Scand. 2003;177(3):255-274.
18. Grassi G, Esler M. The sympathetic nervous system in renovascular hypertension: lead actor or guilty bystander? Hypertension. 1999;34(2):226-229.
19. Palma JA, Kaufmann H. Epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of neurogenic orthostatic hypotension. Mov Disord Clin Pract. 2017;4(3):298-308.
20. Biaggioni I, Robertson D. Hypertension in humans: diagnostic and pathophysiological aspects. Front Neurosci. 2014;8:67.
21. Low PA. Prevalence of orthostatic hypotension. Clin Auton Res. 2008;18(Suppl 1):8-13.
22. Kaufmann H, Malamut R, Norcliffe-Kaufmann L, Rosa K, Freeman R. The orthostatic hypotension questionnaire (OHQ): validation of a novel symptom assessment scale. Clin Auton Res. 2012;22(2):79-90.
23. Goldstein DS, Sharabi Y. Neurogenic orthostatic hypotension: a pathophysiological approach. Circulation. 2009;119(1):139-146.

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