Main Article Content

Nida Aslam 1, Hafiza Hamna Arif 2, Md Mahbubur Rahman 3, Sadia Batool4, Yaseen5, Sadia Khalid 6, Bryan O. Oyarebu7, Nida Shehbaz 8


Photocatalysis, Dye, Hydrogen, Titanium Dioxide, ZSM-5.


Advanced Oxidative Processes (AOPs), particularly photocatalysis, have gained attention for their potential in environmental remediation and energy production. This study explores the integration of photocatalytic degradation of synthetic textile waste with hydrogen production, using titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles supported on ZSM-5 zeolite.

Methods: TiO2 nanoparticles were deposited on ZSM-5 zeolite with 5% and 10% active phases by weight. The resulting catalysts were characterized for their textural, molecular, and morphological properties. Photocatalytic experiments were conducted in a batch reactor with a recycling system, using reactive blue dye RB250 as a model pollutant under artificial UV radiation.

Results: The supported TiO2 catalysts demonstrated rapid decolorization of RB250, achieving complete color removal within minutes of UV irradiation. Further analysis revealed over 80% mineralization of the wastewater for all catalyst types. Hydrogen production was also assessed, with the pure industrial TiO2 catalyst outperforming the zeolite-supported variants. Specifically, the industrial catalyst produced 11.05 µmol of H2 per gram of catalyst, 50% more effective than the supported catalysts with 5 and 10% active phases.

Conclusion: TiO2-based nanoparticle catalysts effectively decolor textile wastewater and produce hydrogen. While the zeolite-supported catalysts were slightly less efficient in hydrogen production, they still showed significant potential for dual-purpose environmental remediation and renewable energy applications. Future studies could explore optimizing catalyst composition and operational parameters to enhance degradation and hydrogen yield.

Abstract 161 | PDF Downloads 41


1. Adesibikan, A. A., Emmanuel, S. S., Olawoyin, C. O., & Ndungu, P. (2024). Cellulosic Metallic Nanocomposites for Photocatalytic Degradation of Persistent Dye Pollutants in Aquatic Bodies: A Pragmatic Review. Journal of Organometallic Chemistry, 123087.
2. Ahlawat, K., Jangra, R., & Prakash, R. (2024). Environmentally Friendly UV-C Excimer Light Source with Advanced Oxidation Process for Rapid Mineralization of Azo Dye in Wastewater. ACS omega.
3. Allawi, F., Mahdi, M., Kadhim, M. J., & Alkhayatt, A. H. O. (2024). Preparation and characterization of ZnO/CuO nanocomposite thin films for highly efficient visible-light photocatalysis of acriflavine dye. Optik, 303, 171722.
4. Basavannavar, D. R., Mishra, K. M., Biju, A., Kumar, J. N., Praveen, B., & Nagaraju, G. (2024). Linum usitatissimum mediated green synthesis of Cu3V2O8 nanoparticles and its photocatalytic activity studies. Environmental Nanotechnology, Monitoring & Management, 21, 100912.
5. Chandiran, K., Pandian, M. S., Balakrishnan, S., Pitchaimuthu, S., Chen, Y.-S., & Raja, K. C. N. (2024). Ti3C2Tx MXene decorated with NiMnO3/NiMn2O4 nanoparticles for simultaneous photocatalytic degradation of mixed cationic and anionic dyes. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 133888.
6. Chauke, N. M., Mohlala, R. L., Ngqoloda, S., & Raphulu, M. C. (2024). Harnessing visible light: enhancing TiO2 photocatalysis with photosensitizers for sustainable and efficient environmental solutions. Frontiers in Chemical Engineering, 6, 1356021.
7. Dhanda, E., Nain, A., & Dahiya, S. (2024). Synthesis of PANI@ Ce-doped ZnO (PCZ) heterojunction: A UV-driven photocatalyst for reduction of Methylene Blue and study of their structural, optical, and electrical properties. Physica Scripta.
8. Doan, V.-D., Nguyen, T. T. N., Le Pham, H. A., Nguyen, T. L. H., Lebedeva, O. E., Dang, H. P., . . . Tran, V. A. (2024). Novel photocatalyst for dye degradation: Cu2O/Ag2MoO4 nanocomposite on cellulose fibers from recycled cigarette butts. Journal of Molecular Liquids, 124261.
9. Eslami, S., Norouzbahari, S., Vatanpour, V., Ghadimi, A., & Rostamizadeh, M. (2024). Synthesis and characterization of enhanced polysulfone-based mixed matrix membranes containing ZSM-5 zeolite for protein and dye removal. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry.
10. Farahmandzadeh, F., Molaei, M., Salehi, S., & Molahosseini, E. (2024). Simultaneous and fast degradation of methylene blue, methylene orange, and Rhodamine B dyes by high-performance rGO/Fe3O4/ZnSe magnetic nanocomposites. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 685, 133229.
11. Gallegos-Cerda, S. D., Hernández-Varela, J. D., Pérez, J. J. C., Huerta-Aguilar, C. A., Victoriano, L. G., Arredondo-Tamayo, B., & Hernández, O. R. (2024). Development of a low-cost photocatalytic aerogel based on cellulose, carbon nanotubes, and TiO2 nanoparticles for degrading organic dyes. Carbohydrate Polymers, 324, 121476.
12. Gharbi, A. H., Hemmami, H., Laouini, S. E., Bouafia, A., Ben Amor, I., Zeghoud, S., . . . Abdullah, J. A. A. (2024). Novel CuO–SiO2 nanocomposites: synthesis, kinetics, recyclability, high stability, and photocatalytic efficiency for Rose Bengal dye removal. Transition Metal Chemistry, 1-19.
13. Horzum, N., Doğan, D., Karaduman, F. R., & Metin, A. e. l. U. l. (2024). Beyond Conventional: Antibacterial, Antioxidant, and Photocatalytic Properties of Nanofibers Featuring Metal-Oxide-Modified Boron Nitride Nanoparticles. ACS Applied Polymer Materials.
14. Kandhasamy, N., Murugadoss, G., Kannappan, T., Kirubaharan, K., Manavalan, R. K., Devanesan, S., . . . Yadav, H. M. (2024). Synthesis of nickel–manganese sulfide decorated with reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite for ultra-fast photocatalytic degradation of organic dye molecules. Carbon Letters, 34(2), 827-840.
15. Krishnan, A., Swarnalal, A., Das, D., Krishnan, M., Saji, V. S., & Shibli, S. (2024). A review on transition metal oxide-based photocatalysts for degradation of synthetic organic pollutants. Journal of Environmental Sciences, 139, 389-417.
16. Kumar, P., & Kumar, A. (2024). Multifunctional CoFe2O4/ZnO nanocomposites: probing magnetic and photocatalytic properties. Nanotechnology, 35(14), 145705.
17. Lee, D.-E., Danish, M., & Jo, W.-K. (2024). Two birds with one stone: Facile fabrication of a ternary ZnIn2S4/BiVO4/MWCNTs nanocomposite for photocatalytic detoxification of priority organic pollutants and hydrogen production with a proposed mechanism. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 980, 173615.
18. Li, M., Zhang, R., Zou, Z., Zhang, L., & Ma, H. (2024). Optimizing physicochemical properties of hierarchical ZnO/TiO2 nano-film by the novel heating method for photocatalytic degradation of antibiotics and dye. Chemosphere, 346, 140392.
19. Liaquat, I., Munir, R., Abbasi, N. A., Sadia, B., Muneer, A., Younas, F., . . . Noreen, S. (2024). Exploring zeolite-based composites in adsorption and photocatalysis for toxic wastewater treatment: Preparation, mechanisms, and future perspectives. Environmental Pollution, 123922.
20. Liou, T.-H., Liu, R.-T., Liao, Y.-C., & Ku, C.-E. (2024). Green and sustainable synthesis of mesoporous silica from agricultural biowaste and functionalized with TiO2 nanoparticles for highly photoactive performance. Arabian Journal of Chemistry, 105764.
21. Liu, F., Rincón, I., Baldoví, H. G., Dhakshinamoorthy, A., Horcajada, P., Rojas, S., . . . Fateeva, A. (2024). Porphyrin-based MOFs for photocatalysis in water: advancements in solar fuels generation and pollutants degradation. Inorganic Chemistry Frontiers.
22. Masho, T. J., Arasu, P. T., Bogale, R. F., Zerrefa, E. A., & Ramamurthy, S. (2024). Green synthesis, characterization of Ag2O/CuO/ZnO nanocomposites using aqueous extract of Croton macrostachyus leaf for Photodegradation, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Results in Chemistry, 7, 101369.
23. Nagaraja, K., Arunpandian, M., & Oh, T. H. (2024). Green Synthesis of Platinum Nanoparticles Using Polymer Bio-reduction Approach and Their Photocatalytic Organic Dye Degradation. Journal of Polymers and the Environment, 1-12.
24. Patar, S., Mittal, R., Bhuyan, B. K., & Borthakur, L. J. (2024). Fabrication of CoFe2O4/sulfonated graphene oxide antibacterial nanohybrid and evaluation of its enhanced photocatalytic activity, mechanism, and pathway of degradation of textile dyes. Journal of Water Process Engineering, 58, 104795.
25. PETROVIĆ, M., RADIVOJEVIĆ, D., RANČEV, S., Velinov, N., KOSTIĆ, M., BOJIĆ, D., & BOJIĆ, A. (2024). Non-thermal atmospheric-pressure positive pulsating corona discharge in degradation of textile dye Reactive Blue 19 enhanced by Bi2O3 catalyst. Plasma Science and Technology, 26(2), 025504.
26. Pompapathi, K., Anantharaju, K. S., Karuppasamy, P., Subramaniam, M., Uma, B., Boppanahalli Siddegowda, S., . . . Murthy, H. A. (2024). Visible-Light-Driven Mentha spicata L.-Mediated Ag-Doped Bi2Zr2O7 Nanocomposite for Enhanced Degradation of Organic Pollutants, Electrochemical Sensing, and Antibacterial Applications. ACS Environmental Au.
27. Prathap, A., Naik, H. B., Viswanath, R., & Vishnu, G. (2024). Biogenic synthesis of Cd doped SrFe2O4 nanoparticles using Datura metal leaves extract and its performance as photocatalytic agent for mixed dyes and electrochemical properties—Journal of Crystal Growth, 630, 127590.
28. Preethi, T., Pachamuthu, M., Senthil, K., Arulmani, S., Pugalmani, S., & Ashokan, S. (2024). Microwave-assisted synthesis of SnO2: ZnO nanocomposites for photocatalytic, antimicrobial, and electrochemical urea detection applications. Journal of Molecular Structure, 1304, 137667.
29. Rohit, M., Reji, R., Singh, H. N., Kumar, J. N., Alarfaj, A. A., Praveen, B., & Nagaraju, G. (2024). Facile green synthesis of Ni3V2O8 nanoparticles for efficient photocatalytic degradation of Rose Bengal dye under visible light irradiation. Chemical Physics Letters, 141246.
30. Samal, A., & Das, D. P. An Effective Strategy for the Photocatalytic Elimination of Industrial Wastewaters Via Mgfe-LDH/Tio2 Heterojunctions.
31. Sarvalkar, P. D., Kamble, S. S., Powar, P. S., Kakade, S. S., Jamadar, A. S., Thounaojam, P., . . . Sharma, K. K. K. (2024). Synthesized rGO/f-MWCNT-architectured 1-D ZnO nanocomposites for azo dyes adsorption, photocatalytic degradation, and biological applications. Catalysis Communications, 187, 106846.
32. Sathisha, H., Krishnamurthy, G., Harini, R., & Nagaraju, G. (2024). Facile synthesis of Cu2S-NiS2 nanocomposite with highly active visible light photocatalyst for dye removal and biological evaluation. Polyhedron, 116962.
33. Shabna, S., Singh, C. J. C., Dhas, S. D. S. J., Jeyakumar, S. C., & Biju, C. S. (2024). An overview of prominent factors influencing the photocatalytic degradation of cationic crystal violet dye employing diverse nanostructured materials. Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology.
34. Shee, N. K., & Kim, H.-J. (2024). Porphyrin-Based Nanomaterials for the Photocatalytic Remediation of Wastewater: Recent Advances and Perspectives. Molecules, 29(3), 611.
35. Shree Lakshmi, K., Soundarya Patel, T., Megha, N., Manohara, G., Babu, N., & Nagaraju, G. (2024). Artemisia Pallens Assisted Synthesis of CeO2–NiO Nanocomposite for Removing Hazardous Rose Bengal Dye and Voltammetric Sensing of Heavy Metals. Chemistry Africa, 1-18.
36. Sukarta, I. N., & Sastrawidana, I. (2024). Synthesis and Characterization of Hydroxyapatite/Titania Composite and Its Application on Photocatalytic Degradation of Remazol Red B Textile Dye Under UV Irradiation. Ecological Engineering & Environmental Technology (EEET), 25(2).
37. Survase, A. A., & Kanase, S. S. (2024). Novel microbial synthesis of rGO nanosheets for effective photocatalytic remediation of Acid Blue 113 dye, improved seed germination, antimicrobial and antioxidant applications—Journal of Molecular Structure, 1302, 137421.
38. Wani, A. A., Rather, R. A., Shaari, N., Khan, U., Muhammad, T., Hussain, S. M., & Abed, A. M. (2024). Aspects of superior photocatalytic dye degradation and adsorption efficiency of reduced graphene oxide multiwalled carbon nanotubes with modified ZnO-Al2O3 nanocomposites. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, 112461.
39. Xu, L., Guo, P., Xu, J., Shen, B., & Zhao, Z. (2024). Regulation of TiO2/ZSM-5 catalyst for enhanced photocatalytic toluene oxidation: Intensified light absorption, charge separation, and toluene adsorption. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 133832.
40. Yan, B., Dai, Y., Xin, L., Li, M., Zhang, H., Long, H., & Gao, X. (2024). Research progress in the degradation of printing and dyeing wastewater using chitosan-based composite photocatalytic materials. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 130082.