Main Article Content

Sumaiya Azam1, Nabeela Kanwal2, Anirudh Gupta3, Dr. Shayan Zufishan5, Dr. Syeda Asiya Parveen6, Ali Imran Mallhi7


Sand, Organic Molecules, Catalysts, and Petrochemical Waste.


Industrial processes generate substantial amounts of complex waste materials, necessitating the removal of contaminants before disposal. Phenolic compounds, particularly concerning due to their harmful effects on human health and the environment, are prevalent byproducts in various industrial activities, such as gasoline processing.

Objective: This study aims to investigate the primary factors influencing the reduction of phenolic compounds and their conversion into minerals through chemical processes.

Methods: The original waste discharge, characterized by a pH of approximately 7, containing 5 g L-1 of sand (containing TiO2) and 22 mg L-1 of oxidizing hydrogen peroxide. The reduction process was monitored over 60 minutes, during which the total phenol content decreased by approximately 90%. Phenol levels were measured using an ultraviolet spectrophotometer employing the standard 4-amino antipyrine method at a wavelength of 510 nm. Reactions took place in a reactor equipped with a 95 W UV-C lamp for sterilization.

Results: The reduction process achieved a substantial decrease in phenol content within the specified timeframe. The use of UV-C light facilitated efficient degradation, leading to a notable reduction in phenolic compounds.

Conclusion: Understanding the factors influencing phenol reduction in industrial waste is crucial for effective waste management strategies. This study highlights the efficacy of chemical processes coupled with UV-C irradiation in mitigating phenol pollution, offering a promising approach for environmental remediation efforts.

Abstract 77 | PDF Downloads 43


1. Chen, J., Li, M., Yang, Y., Liu, H., Zhao, B., Ozaki, Y., & Song, W. (2024). In-situ surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy reveals metal–organic frameworks' role in photocatalytic reaction selectivity on susceptible and durable Cu-CuBr substrate. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 660, 669-680.
2. Chen, Q., Ning, C., Fang, J., Ping, B., Li, G., Kong, L., . . . Ruan, Q. (2024). Redirecting the electron flow to coordinate oxidation and reduction reactions for efficient photocatalytic H2O2 production. Chemical Engineering Journal, 150581.
3. Cheng, J., Wu, Y., Zhang, W., Zhang, J., Wang, L., Zhou, M., . . . Xu, H. (2024). Fully Conjugated 2D sp2 Carbon‐Linked Covalent Organic Frameworks for Photocatalytic Overall Water Splitting. Advanced Materials, 36(6), 2305313.
4. Fang, R., Yang, Z., Sun, J., Zhu, C., Chen, Y., Wang, Z., & Xue, C. (2024). Synergistic mediation of dual donor levels in CNS/BOCB-OV heterojunctions for enhanced photocatalytic CO 2 reduction. Journal of Materials Chemistry A, 12(6), 3398-3410.
5. He, Y., Yin, L., Yuan, N., & Zhang, G. (2024). Adsorption and activation, active site and reaction pathway of photocatalytic CO2 reduction: A review. Chemical Engineering Journal, 148754.
6. Jabbar, Z. H., Graimed, B. H., Okab, A. A., Ammar, S. H., Najim, A. A., Radeef, A. Y., & Taher, A. G. (2024). Preparation of magnetic Fe3O4/g-C3N4 nanosheets immobilized with hierarchal Bi2WO6 for boosted photocatalytic reaction towards antibiotics in aqueous solution: S-type charge migration route. Diamond and Related Materials, 142, 110817.
7. Jian, L., Dong, Y., Zhao, H., Pan, C., Wang, G., & Zhu, Y. (2024). Highly crystalline carbon nitrogen polymer with a strong built-in electric fields for ultra-high photocatalytic H2O2 production. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 342, 123340.
8. Kamogawa, K., Kato, Y., Tamaki, Y., Noguchi, T., Nozaki, K., Nakagawa, T., & Ishitani, O. (2024). Overall reaction mechanism of photocatalytic CO 2 reduction on a Re (i)-complex catalyst unit of a Ru (ii)–Re (i) supramolecular photocatalyst. Chemical Science, 15(6), 2074-2088.
9. Kim, C.-M., Jaffari, Z. H., Abbas, A., Chowdhury, M. F., & Cho, K. H. (2024). Machine learning analysis to interpret the effect of the photocatalytic reaction rate constant (k) of semiconductor-based photocatalysts on dye removal. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 465, 132995.
10. Li, P., Wang, Y., Wang, J., Wang, W., Ding, Z., Liang, J., & Fan, Q. (2024). The photocatalytic oxidation of As (III) on birnessite. npj Clean Water, 7(1), 19.
11. Pan, Y., Abazari, R., Tahir, B., Sanati, S., Zheng, Y., Tahir, M., & Gao, J. (2024). Iron-based metal–organic frameworks and their derived materials for photocatalytic and photoelectrocatalytic reactions. Coordination Chemistry Reviews, 499, 215538.
12. Raziq, F., Rahman, M. Z., Ali, S., Ali, R., Ali, S., Zada, A., . . . Qiao, L. (2024). Enhancing Z-scheme photocatalytic CO2 methanation at extended visible light (> 600 nm): Insight into charge transport and surface catalytic reaction mechanisms. Chemical Engineering Journal, 479, 147712.
13. Ren, G., Zhou, M., Hu, P., Chen, J.-F., & Wang, H. (2024). Bubble-water/catalyst triphase interface microenvironment accelerates photocatalytic OER via optimizing semi-hydrophobic OH radical. Nature communications, 15(1), 2346.
14. Salaverri, N., Alemán, J., & Marzo, L. (2024). Harnessing the Power of the De Mayo Reaction: Unveiling a Photochemical and Photocatalytic Masked [2+ 2] Methodology for Organic Synthesis. Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis, 366(2), 156-167.
15. Wang, J., & Zhang, D. (2024). Insights into atom-level local reactions for CO2 photocatalytic production: Reaction pathways and product selectivity at the atomic level. Journal of Cleaner Production, 141676.
16. Xu, Q., Wu, J., Qian, Y., Chen, X., Han, Y., Zeng, X., . . . Zhu, Q. (2024). Order–Disorder Engineering of Carbon Nitride for Photocatalytic H2O2 Generation Coupled with Pollutant Removal. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 16(1), 784-794.
17. Yan, Y., Gu, X., Zheng, S., Zhang, J., Xia, S., & Li, F. (2024). Designing a type Ⅱ heterojunction ZnFe2O4/ZnGa2O4 for photocatalytic reaction: Theoretical investigation. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 59, 224-233.
18. Yang, J., Liu, B., Zeng, L., Du, B., Zhou, Y., Tao, H., . . . Zhu, M. (2024). Confining Bismuth‐Halide Perovskite in Mesochannels of Silica Nanomembranes for Exceptional Photocatalytic Abatement of Air Pollutants. Angewandte Chemie, e202319741.
19. Yu, C., Jin, J., Yan, H., Zhou, G., Xu, Y., Tang, L., . . . Lu, Z. (2024). Spaced double hydrogen bonding for highly efficient and selective photocatalytic air reductive H2O2 synthesis. Angewandte Chemie, e202400857.
20. Zhang, G., Liu, J., Tan, Z., & Yu, H. (2024). Multivariate modeling of intrinsic kinetics for gas-solid heterogeneous photocatalytic reaction: A general method for different pollutant-photocatalyst systems. Chemical Engineering Journal, 479, 147651.
21. Zhang, L., Li, R.-H., Li, X.-X., Wang, S., Liu, J., Hong, X.-X., . . . Lan, Y.-Q. (2024). Photocatalytic aerobic oxidation of C (sp3)-H bonds. Nature communications, 15(1), 537.
22. Zhao, S., Zhang, C., Wang, S., Lu, K., Wang, B., Huang, J., . . . Liu, M. (2024). Photothermally driven decoupling of gas evolution at the solid–liquid interface for boosted photocatalytic hydrogen production. Nanoscale, 16(1), 152-162.
23. Zhao, Y., Kondo, Y., Kuwahara, Y., Mori, K., & Yamashita, H. (2024). Two-Phase Reaction System for Efficient Photocatalytic Production of Hydrogen Peroxide. Applied Catalysis B: Environment and Energy, 123945.
24. Zhou, J., Zha, X., Chen, Z., Li, K., Sun, H., Wang, J., . . . Zhao, Z. (2024). Tailoring the coordination microenvironment of single-atom W for efficient photocatalytic CO2 reduction. Applied Catalysis B: Environment and Energy, 123911.
25. Zhou, X., Chen, D., Li, T., Chen, X., & Zhu, L. (2024). Pd and carbon quantum dots co-decorated TiO2 nanosheets for enhanced photocatalytic H2 production and reaction mechanism. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 53, 1361-1372.
26. Zhou, X., Tian, L., Wu, H., Chen, X., Zhang, J., Li, W., . . . Liu, Y. (2024). Reusable and self-sterilization mask for real-time personal protection based on sunlight-driven photocatalytic reaction. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 466, 133513.