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Mohammad Israr
Aziz Ur Rehman
Madeeha Jadoon
Ayesha Naureen Awan
Nadia Halem
Sofia Shoukat


Gut Microbiome, Pulmonary tuberculosis, latent tuberculosis infection, healthy control


Purpose: Alterations in the Gut Microbiome of Individuals with Tuberculosis of Different Disease States

Place of study: This study was conducted at the Biochemistry Department of Bacha Khan Medical College, Mardan from January 2019 to January 2020.

Methods and Materials: This study was conducted at the Biochemistry Department of Bacha Khan Medical College, Mardan from January 2019 to January 2020. A total of 100 subjects were enrolled and categorized into three groups: Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB), latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI), and healthy controls (HC).

Results: Significant differences in gut microbial diversity were observed across the study groups, with PTB patients exhibiting lower alpha diversity compared to LTBI and HC groups (p < 0.001). PCoA revealed distinct clustering of samples based on disease states, and PERMANOVA confirmed the significant impact of grouping variables on microbiota composition (p = 0.001). LEfSe analysis identified 27 genera showing differential abundance between groups, with Bifidobacterium and Bacteroides being more abundant in PTB. A random forest classifier model using the top 10 differential genera achieved high accuracy in discriminating between PTB, LTBI, and HC groups (average accuracy ranging from 80.72% to 86.30%).

Conclusion: In conclusion, this study demonstrated significant dysbiosis of the gut microbiota in active pulmonary tuberculosis patients compared to latent tuberculosis infection and healthy controls based on diversity and compositional alterations.

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