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Elisha Paikray
Saurabh Chawla
Chandramohan Bathrachalam
Sarita Jena




Peptic ulcers are sores that develop in the lining of the stomach, lower esophagus, or small intestine. Predominantly, inflammation by Helicobacter pylori, regular intake of aspirin, ibuprofen, smoking, alcohol, radiation therapy, and stomach cancer are the factors (1, 17). In the general population, approximately 5-10% of the population is affected by peptic ulcer disease (PUD) and ulcer complications [1]. In the disease pathogenesis pathway, proinflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress, and apoptosis play essential roles [3–7]. Invasion of gastric tissues by neutrophils, marked with increased myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, contributes to gastric mucosal damage [8]. In humans, the frequent consumption of alcohol is associated with the gastric mucosal lesion [2]. The use of antibiotics, proton pump inhibitors, prostaglandin analogues, and H2 receptor blockers has decreased the morbidity of PUD. However, attempts to discover new supportive therapy with lower cost and fewer side effects are necessary [12]. The experimental model of ethanol-induced gastric injury mimics several features of the human condition and thus provides a means for assessing peptic ulcer actions along with the implicated mechanisms for gastric protection [9-11].

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