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Saima Inam
Sadia Ikram
Muhammad Tahir Saeed
Sadaf Munir
Almas Raza
Asma Inam
Syed Zeeshan Haider Naqvi
Aroosh Shabbir


Neonatal sepsis, Gram negative bacteria, Neonatal intensive care unit, Blood culture, Anti-bacterial agents


This study involved the analysis of 492 blood samples to assess the prevalence of sepsis, specifically focusing on Gram-negative bacterial (GNB) neonatal sepsis. Out of the total cases diagnosed with culture-proven sepsis (96 patients), 54 (56.25%) were identified as GNB neonatal sepsis. Among the GNB neonatal sepsis cases, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the predominant pathogen, isolated in 32 patients (59.26%), and followed by Klebsiella species in 12 patients (22.22%), E. coli in 6 patients (11.1%), and Acinetobacter species in 4 patients (7.41%).

Detailed antibiotic susceptibility profiles were determined for each identified pathogen. Notably, Carbapenem such as Imipenem (IPM) and Meropenem (MEM) exhibited robust efficacy, with over 80% susceptibility observed. The highest susceptibility was observed for Meropenem against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (87%), and the lowest susceptibility was noted for Ciprofloxacin against Klebsiella species (10%). However, Tazobactam-piperacillin (TZP) demonstrated varied effectiveness across pathogens, and only 31.25% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates showed sensitivity to TZP. Commonly used antibacterial agents, including Ampicillin, Co-amoxiclav, and third-generation cephalosporin, displayed limited efficacy against isolates. In conclusion, Pseudomonas aeruginosa emerged as the most common Gram-negative organism causing neonatal sepsis. High resistance was observed in current empiric treatment choices like Amikacin (AK) and Tazobactam-piperacillin (TZP). Routinely used antibacterial agents, including Ampicillin, Co-amoxiclav, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, and ciprofloxacin, were found to be ineffective against Gram-negative isolates, emphasizing the need for careful consideration in neonatal sepsis treatment.

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