STEM CELLS: The Guardian of the Immune System- A Review Article

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Dr. Dinesh Kumar Sharma
Dr. Dilshad Ali
Dr. Jamal Ahmad Siddiqui


Stem cells, embryonic stem cells, adult stem cells, stem cells treatment, regenerative medicine, stem cell therapy


Stem cells serve as the foundational cells of all multicellular organisms having the potency to differentiate into wide range of adult cells. Stem cells are marked by their remarkable capacity for self-renewal and totipotency. While totipotency is predominantly exhibited by embryonic stem cells in their earliest stages, adult stem cells exhibit multipotency and adaptive plasticity, which harbors tremendous potential for harnessing as a wellspring of innovative therapeutic prospects in the future. Embryonic stem cells have the capacity to generate every specialized cell type in an organism (in other words, they are pluripotent). Adult stem cells, in contrast, have the capacity to give rise to the diverse cell types that specify a particular tissue. Multiple adult organs harbor stem cells that can give rise to mature tissue-specific cells. The Haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are considered the paradigmatic adult stem cell because it can differentiate into all the types of blood cells. Regenerative medicine is a multidisciplinary field concerned with the replacement, repair or restoration of injured tissues. This field emerged from the need for reconstruction in children and adults in whom tissue has been damaged by diseases, trauma and congenital anomalies. This promising area of science is also leading scientists to investigate the possibility of cell-based therapies to treat disease. Therapeutic benefits of bone marrow transplantation are well known but characterizing the potentialities of haematopoietic and mesenchymal cells is essential. Haematopoietic stem cells have been used for treating both haematopoietic and non-haematopoietic disorders. Ease of isolation, in vitro expansion, and hypoimmunogenecity have brought mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into limelight. Genetic regulation of adult stem cells in the form of Bmi-1, Notch, sonic hedgehog & wnt gene is also being worked upon and future can be regulation of stem cell differentiation in vitro, in vivo or both. It is the knowledge of regulators of stem cells which has opened the therapeutic usage of stem cells in the form of neuron regeneration, treatment of bone defect, drug testing, gene therapy and cell based therapy in the form of muscle damage, spinal cord injury, cancer therapy etc. In this study, we tried to provide the information about stem cells and their significant

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