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Irene Zelner
Gideon Koren




Alcohol (ethanol) consumption in pregnancy is the etiology of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), a leading cause of congenital disability worldwide. Hence, any attempt to prevent or manage FASD must start from comprehensive understanding of alcohol consumption by women in general, and by women of reproductive years in particular. This review presents and synthesizes studies conducted worldwide on alcohol consumption by pregnant women, risk factors associated with gestational drinking, as well as doses and definitions of drinking behaviours.

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