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Charles Piwko
Gideon Koren
Vusal Babashov
Colin Vicente
Thomas R Einarson


Cost, burden, nausea, NVP, pregnancy, vomiting


Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP) is the most common medical condition during gestation, affecting 50%-90% of women during their first trimester, and many in the second and third trimester. NVP affects women’s quality of life and exerts a large economic impact on patients, caregivers and society.

To estimate the overall economic burden of illness of NVP in the USA.

A spreadsheet model was utilized to estimate this burden including direct and indirect costs. Costs are reported in 2012 US dollars and were estimated from the perspective of society. Cost centers included drug treatments for mild to severe NVP and hospitalizations for hyperemesis gravidarum (HG), as well as time lost from work and caregiver time. Clinical, epidemiologic, and economic data were obtained from the literature to populate the model. Rates of drug use were multiplied by unit costs and summed.

The estimated total economic burden in 2012 in the USA was $1,778,473,782 which included $1,062,847,276 (60%) in direct costs and $715,626,506 (40%) in indirect costs. Overall, the average cost to manage one woman for NVP was $1827. Costs increased with increasing severity of NVP. The estimates were conservative, as not all applicable costs could be included.

NVP results in a significant economic impact, and hence effective therapy should be sought. Future prospective research should determine in more detail what resources are utilized in the USA to manage women with NVP.

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