Main Article Content

Martha Nolan


Women, pregnancy, advocacy, policy barriers, government, research


The Society for Women’s Health Research (SWHR) has been a driving force in the U.S. for ensuring that biomedical research is conducted on women and for raising awareness about the biological and physiological differences between men and women. SWHR is a Washington, DC-based patient/research advocacy organization that has successfully advocated for the inclusion of women in clinical trials for more than two decades. It has lobbied successfully for research into women’s health and sex differences and continues to recommend a number of actions to government, lawmakers and organizations as part of a comprehensive effort to transform science and improve the quality of medical care.

Abstract 119 | PDF Downloads 60


1. National Institutes of Health. National Institutes of Health Revitalization Act of 1993. Subtitle B–Clinical Research Equity Regarding Women and Minorities. (July 6, 2013)
2. Physicians’ Health Study. (July 6, 2013)
3. Ridker PM, Cook NR, Lee IM, Gordon D, Gaziano JM, Manson JE, Hennekens CH, Buring JE. A randomized trial of low-dose aspirin in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in women. N Engl J Med 2005;352(13):1293-304. (July 7, 2013)
4. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health (NIH). How Does Heart Disease Affect Women? September 26, 2011. (July 7, 2013)
5. Women's Health. Report of the Public Health Service Task Force on Women's Health Issues. Public Health Rep. 1985;100(1):73-106. (July 7, 2013)
6. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Food and Drug Administration. Guideline for the Study and Evaluation of Gender Differences in the Clinical Evaluation of Drugs; Notice. Federal Register. 1993;58(139):39406-39416. (July 7, 2013)
7. Institute of Medicine. Exploring the biological contributions to human health: Does sex matter? Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences; 2001. (July7, 2013)
8. Institute of Medicine (U.S.). Committee on Women’s Health Research, Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice. Women’s health research : progress, pitfalls, and promise.Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences; 2010. (July 20, 2013)
9. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Food and Drug Administration, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER). 2004 Guidance for Industry. Pharmacokinetics in Pregnancy – Study Design, Data Analysis, and Impact on Dosing and Labeling. April 30, 2009. (July 7, 2013)
10. U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 45, Public Welfare, Department of Health And Human Services, Part 46 Protection of Human Subjects. July 14, 2009. (July 7, 2013)
11. National Institutes of Health. Enrolling Pregnant Women: Issues in Clinical Research. Webcast. October 18, 2010. (July 7, 2013)