Main Article Content

Syed Bakht Ruidar
Wang Ning
Najeeb Ullah
M.D. Umair Khan
Yaseen Mijiti


Diabetes, COVID-19, Hypertension, Ischemic heart disease, Pandemic


Objective: The current study aims to determine the frequency of diabetes mellitus in patients with COVID-19 infection.


Methodology: Our cross-sectional study was conducted on 120 patients who presented with COVID-19 to Dr. Ziauddin Hospital, North Nazimabad, Karachi, from December 2021 to May 2022. The frequency of diabetes in these patients was determined.


Results: In this study, the mean age of the patients recorded was 53.72±10.42 years. Frequency of diabetes was 37 (30.8%). Diabetes was significantly associated with hypertension, ischemic heart disease, and chronic kidney disease.


Conclusion: The frequency of diabetes in COVID-19 patients in our study was 37 (30.8%). Diabetes was significantly more common in patients with comorbidities such as hypertension, ischemic heart disease, and chronic kidney disease. We recommend proper management of diabetic patients with COVID-19 infection as it can lead to a fatal manifestation of the disease.

Abstract 141 | PDF Downloads 82


1. Barone MT, Ngongo B, Harnik SB, de Oliveira LX, Végh D, de Luca PV, et al. COVID-19 associated with diabetes and other non-communicable diseases led to a global health crisis. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2021;171:108587.
2. Jeong IK, Yoon KH, Lee MK. Diabetes and COVID-19: Global and regional perspectives. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2020;166:108303.
3. Azar WS, Njeim R, Fares AH, Azar NS, Azar ST, El Sayed M, et al. COVID-19 and diabetes mellitus: how one pandemic worsens the other. Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 2020;21:451-63.
4. Daryabor G, Atashzar MR, Kabelitz D, Meri S, Kalantar K. The effects of type 2 diabetes mellitus on organ metabolism and the immune system. Front Immunol. 2020;11:1582.
5. Roep BO, Thomaidou S, van Tienhoven R, Zaldumbide A. Type 1 diabetes mellitus as a disease of the β-cell (do not blame the immune system?). Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2021;17(3):150-61.
6. Bornstein SR, Rubino F, Khunti K, Mingrone G, Hopkins D, Birkenfeld AL, Boehm B, Amiel S, Holt RI, Skyler JS, DeVries JH. Practical recommendations for the management of diabetes in patients with COVID-19. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2020;8(6):546-50.
7. Roberts J, Pritchard AL, Treweeke AT, Rossi AG, Brace N, Cahill P, et al. Why is COVID-19 more severe in patients with diabetes? The role of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, endothelial dysfunction, and the immunoinflammatory system. Front Cardiovasc Med. 2021;7:629933.
8. Sardu C, Gambardella J, Morelli MB, Wang X, Marfella R, Santulli G. Hypertension, thrombosis, kidney failure, and diabetes: is COVID-19 an endothelial disease? A comprehensive evaluation of clinical and basic evidence. J Clin Med. 2020;9(5):1417-25.
9. Selvaraj H, Damadarosamy K, Kiruthiga N, Rani KR, Duraisamy K, Dhanasekaran M, et al. Critical clinical evaluation of Covid-19 patients with tuberculosis in the Indian sub-continent. Curr Drug Saf. 2023;18(3):276-83.
10. Chung WK, Erion K, Florez JC, Hattersley AT, Hivert MF, Lee CG, et al. Precision medicine in diabetes: a consensus report from the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD). Diabetes Care. 2020;43(7):1617-35.
11. Liu Y, Huang F, Xu J, Yang P, Qin Y, Cao M, et al. Anti-hypertensive Angiotensin II receptor blockers associated to mitigation of disease severity in elderly COVID-19 patients. MedRxiv. 2020.
12. Liu X, Long C, Xiong Q, Chen C, Ma J, Su Y, et al. Association of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers with risk of COVID‐19, inflammation level, severity, and death in patients with COVID‐19: a rapid systematic review and meta‐analysis. Clin Cardiol. 2020;8(5):58-60.
13. Huang C, Wang Y, Li X, et al.. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. Lancet 2020;395:497–506.
14. Yang JK, Feng Y, Yuan MY, et al.. Plasma glucose levels and diabetes are independent predictors for mortality and morbidity in patients with SARS. Diabet Med 2006;23:623–628.
15. Alanazi KH, Abedi GR, Midgley CM, et al.. Diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and death among 32 patients with MERS-CoV infection, Saudi Arabia. Emerg Infect Dis 2020;26:166–168.
16. Singh AK, Gillies CL, Singh R, et al.. Prevalence of co-morbidities and their association with mortality in patients with COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetes Obes Metab 2020;22:1915–1924.
17. Ma RCW, Holt RIG. COVID-19 and diabetes. Diabet Med 2020;37:723–725.
18. Rockhill B, Newman B, Weinberg C. Use and misuse of population attributable fractions. Am J Public Health 1998;88:15–19.
19. Rashidi H, Amiri F, Abaforush F, Mehraban Z, Pouladzadeh M, Sedaghat A. Frequency of Diabetes Mellitus and Newly Diagnosed Hyperglycemia and Their Impacts on Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients. Shiraz Med J. 2023;24(4).
20. Muhammad, A, Hakim, M, Afaq, S, et al. Diabetic ketoacidosis amongst patients with COVID-19: A retrospective chart review of 220 patients in Pakistan. Endocrinol Diab Metab. 2022; 5:e00331.