Main Article Content

Dr. Sonia Shagufta
Dr. Sharif Ullah Jan
Dr. Salma Andleeb
Sidra Wahab


Antisocial Traits, Callousness, Egocentricity, Proactive Aggression, Reactive Aggression


The aim of the present study was to investigate the factor structure of Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire (RPQ), applicability of two factor model across the gender and it association with psychopathy. Sample of the current study was consisted of 600 undergraduate students (300 male and 300 female) aged between 17 and 25 years. Data was collected by using cross-sectional method. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) techniques were utilized to assess the data. For this purpose, five latent variables were identified: reactive aggression, proactive aggression, egocentricity, callousness and antisocial traits of psychopathy. Results of the current study overall supported the two-factor model of the RPQ and applicability of the same model across the gender. Furthermore, sub scales of RPQ evidenced differential correlates with psychopathy. Proactive aggression was significantly positively associated, whereas reactive aggression was significantly negatively related with the callousness. Reactive aggression was significantly positively associated with antisocial factor. Furthermore, results revealed that both reactive and proactive aggressions were also associated with egocentricity however; this relationship was stronger for later variable. Empirical findings confirmed the prevalence of reactive and proactive aggression and its association with psychopathy among undergraduate students and suggested that there is utmost need to modify these traits by counselling because both are responsible for the development of psychopathic traits that subsequently leads towards the criminal and violent behavior.

Abstract 131 | PDF Downloads 108


1. Anderson, C.A., & Bushman, B.J. (2002). Human aggression. Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 27–51.
2. Arrigo, B. A., & Shipley, S. (2001). The Confusion over Psychopathy (I): Historical Considerations. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 45(3), 325-344. Doi:10.1177/0306624X01453005
3. Bandura, A. (1973). Aggression: a social learning analysis. Englewood Cliffs; London, Prentice-Hall.
4. Barker, E. D., Vitaro, F., Lacourse, E., Fontaine, N. M., Carbonneau, R., & Tremblay, R. E. (2010). Testing the developmental distinctiveness of male proactive and reactive aggression with a nested longitudinal experimental intervention. Aggressive Behavior: Official Journal of the International Society for Research on Aggression, 36(2), 127-140.Doi: 10.1002/ab.20337.
5. Baron, R.A., & Richardson, D. (1994). Human Aggression. New York, NY: Plenum.
6. Barry, T., Thompson, A., Barry, C., & Lochman, J. (2007). The importance of narcissism in predicting proactive and reactive aggression in moderately to highly aggressive children. Aggressive Behavior, 33(3), 185-97.
7. Baş, A. U., & Yurdabakan, İ. (2012). Factor structure of the reactive-proactive aggression questionnaire in Turkish children and gender, grade-level, and socioeconomic status differences in reactive and proactive aggression. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 30(3), 284-297.
8. Berkowitz, L. (1993). Aggression: Its causes, consequences, and control. New York, NY England: McGraw-Hill.
9. Bettencourt, B.A., & Miller, N. (1996). Gender differences in aggression as a function of provocation: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 119, 422–447.
10. Blais, J., Solodukhin, E., & Forth, A. E. (2014). A meta-analysis exploring the relationship between psychopathy and instrumental versus reactive violence. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 41(7), 797-821.
11. Bonogofsky, A. N. (2007). Self-Report Measures of Psychopathic and Schizotypal Personality Characteristics: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Characteristics of Antisocial Behavior and Hypothetical Psychosis-Proneness in a College Sample. (Master Thesis) University of Montana.
12. Bozsik, C., Kormendi, A., Pap, I.J., Pataky, N., Gadoros, J., &Halasz, J. (2013). The relationship between reactive-proactive aggression, callous/unemotional traits and behavioural problems in Hungarian adolescents. Psychiatr Hung, 28 (1): 48-56.
13. Brinkley, C. A., Diamond, P. M., Magaletta, P. R. &Heigel, C. P. (2008). Cross-validation of Levenson’s Psychopathy Scale in a sample of federal female inmates. Assessment, 15(4), 464-482. Doi: 10.1177/1073191108319043
14. Bushman, B. J., & Baumeister, R. F. (1998). Threatened egotism, narcissism, self-esteem, and direct and displaced aggression: Does self-love or self-hate lead to violence? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75(1), 219–229.
15. Buzina, N. (2012). Psychopathy – Historical controversies and new diagnostic approach. Psychiatriadanubina, 24(2), 134-142.
16. Byrne, B. M. (2012). Choosing structural equation modeling computer software: Snapshots of LISREL, EQS, AMOS, and Mplus.
17. Carlson, M., & Miller, N. (1988). Bad experiences and aggression. Sociology and Social Research, 72, 155–158.
18. Chase, A.K., O’Leary, D.K., & Heyman, E.R. (2001). Categorizing partner-violent men within the reactive-proactive typology model. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 69(3), 567-72.
19. Cima, M., & Raine, A. (2009). Distinct characteristics of psychopathy relate to different subtypes of aggression. Journal of Personality and Individual Differences, 47(8), 835-840.
20. Cima, M., Raine, A., Meesters, C., & Popma, A. (2013). Validation of the Dutch Reactive Proactive Questionnaire (RPQ): Differential correlates of reactive and proactive Aggression from childhood to adulthood. Aggressive Behavior, 39(2), 99-113.
21. Coid, J., Yang, M., Ullrich, S., Roberts, A., Moran, P., Bebbington, P., & Hare, R. (2009). Psychopathy among prisoners in England and Wales. International Journal of Law Psychiatry, 32(3), 134-141.Doi: 10.1016/j.ijlp.2009.02.008
22. Connor, D.F., Steingard, R.J., Anderson, J.J., & Melloni, R.H. (2003). Gender differences in reactive and proactive aggression. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 33(4), 279-294.
23. Cooper, H. (2012). A Review of “The Psychopath Test: A Journey Through The Madness Industry” Jon Ronson, New York, NY.
24. Cornell, D. J., Warren, J., Hawk, G., Stafford, E., Oram, G., & Pine, D. (1996). Psychopathy in instrumental and reactive violent offenders. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64(4), 783-790.https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.64.4.783
25. Crego, C., & Widiger, T. A. (2014). Psychopathy and DSM. Journal of Personality, Doi: 10.1111 /jopy.12115.
26. Crick, N.R. (1995). Relational aggression: The role of intent attributions, feelings of distress, and provocation type. Development and Psychopathology, 7, 313–322.
27. Cronbach, L. J. (1951). Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests. Psychometrika, 16(3), 297–334.
28. Dil, S., & Kazmi, F. (2016). Psychopathic Inclination among Incarcerated Youth of Hazara Division Pakistan. Sage Open, 6(3), 1-6. Doi: 10.1177/2158244016671558.
29. Dinić, B. M., & Raine, A. (2019). An item response theory analysis and further validation of the Reactive–Proactive Aggression Questionnaire (RPQ): The Serbian adaptation of the RPQ. Journal of Personality Assessment. DOI:10.1080/00223891.2019.1573430
30. Dodge, K. A., & Coie, J. D. (1987). Social-information-processing factors in reactive and proactive aggression in children’s peer groups. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53 (6), 1146-1158.
31. Dodge, K. A., Lochman, J. E., Harnish, J. D., Bates, J. E., & Pettit, G. S. (1997). Reactive and proactive aggression in school children and psychiatrically impaired chronically assaultive youth. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 106(1), 37–51.
32. Eagly, A.H., & Steffen, V.J. (1986). Gender and aggressive behavior: A meta-analytic review of the social psychological literature. Psychological Bulletin, 100, 309–330.
33. Fanti, A.K., Vanman, J.E., Henrich, C.C., &Avraamides, N.M. (2009). Desensitization to media violence over a short period of time. Aggressive Behavior, 35(2), 179-87
34. Flight, J. I., & Forth, A. E. (2007). Instrumentally violent youths: The roles of psychopathic traits, empathy, and attachment. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 34(6), 739-751.
35. Frick, J.P., Cornell, H.A., Dane, E.H., & Bodin, D.S. (2003). Callous-Unemotional Traits and Developmental Pathways to Severe Conduct Problems. Developmental Psychology, 39(2), 246-60
36. Fung, A. L.-C., Raine, A., & Gao, Y. (2009). Cross-cultural generalizability of the reactive–proactive aggression questionnaire (RPQ). Journal of Personality Assessment, 91(5), 473-479.
37. Garofalo, C., & Neumann, C.S. (2018). Psychopathy and emotion regulation: Taking stock and moving forward. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, pp, 76–97.
38. Geen, R.G. (2001). Human Aggression, second ed. Buckingham, UK: Open University Press.
39. Hair, J. F., Anderson, R. E., Tatham, R. L., & Black, W. C. (1998). Multivariate Data Analysis with Reading. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
40. Hare, R. D., Hart, S. D., & Harpur, T. J. (1991). Psychopathy and the DSM-IV criteria for antisocial personality disorder. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100(3), 391.
41. Hare, R. D., & Neumann, C. S. (2005). Structural models of psychopathy. Current psychiatry reports, 7(1), 57.
42. Hubbard, J. A., Dodge, K. A., Cillessen, A. H. N., Coie, J. D., & Schwartz, D. (2001). The dyadic nature of social information processing in boys reactive an proactive aggression. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80(2), 268-280.
43. Jambroes, T., Jansen, L. M., vd Ven, P. M., Claassen, T., Glennon, J. C., Vermeiren, R. R., et al. (2018). Dimensions of psychopathy in relation to proactive and reactive aggression: Does intelligence matter? Personality and Individual Differences, 129, 76-82.
44. Jung, J., Krahé, B., & Busching, R. (2017). Differential Risk Profiles for Reactive and Proactive Aggression. Social Psychology, 71-84. DOI https://doi.org/10.1027/1864-9335/a000298
45. Kempes, M., Matthys, W., Vries, D.H., & Engeland, V.H. (2005). Reactive and proactive aggression in children a review of theory, findings and the relevance for child and adolescent psychiatry. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 14(1), 11-9.
46. Kruh, I. P., Frick, P. J., & Clements, C. B. (2005). Historical and personality correlates to the violence patterns of juveniles tried as adults. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 32(1), 69-96.
47. Lewis, M., Ireland, A. C., Derefaka, G., Taylor, L., McBoyle, J., Smillie, L., Chu,S., & Archer, J. (2019). Self-reported psychopathy and aggression motivation: a role for emotions? Journal of Forensic Psychiatry & Psychology, 31, 156-181.
48. Lockwood, P. L., Bird, G., Bridge, M., & Viding, E. (2013). Dissecting empathy: high levels of psychopathic and autistic traits are characterized by difficulties in different social information processing domains. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7, 760.
49. Lynam, D. R., Loeber, R., & Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (2008). The Stability of Psychopathy From Adolescence Into Adulthood The Search for Moderators. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 35(2), 228-243.
50. Marsee, M. A., & Frick, P. J. (2007). Exploring the cognitive and emotional correlates to proactive and reactive aggression in a sample of detained girls. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 35(6), 969-981.
51. Meloy, J. R. (1988). The psychopathic mind: Origins, dynamics, and treatment: Rowman & Littlefield.
52. Pardini, D. A. (2006). The callousness pathway to severe violent delinquency. Aggressive Behavior: Official Journal of the International Society for Research on Aggression, 32(6), 590-598.
53. Parrott, D. J., & Giancola, P. R. (2007). Addressing "The criterion problem" in the assessment of aggressive behavior: Development of a new taxonomic system. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 12(3), 280 299.
54. Patrick, C.J. (2001). Emotional processes in psychopathy. Violence and Psychopathy. New York: Kluwer/Plenum, pp. 57–77.
55. Perenc, L., & Radochonski, M. (2013). Psychopathic Traits and Reactive-Proactive Aggression in a Large Community Sample of Polish Adolescents. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev, 45(4), 464-471.
56. Polman, H., Castro, O.B., Koops, W., &Boxtel, V.H.W. (2007). A Meta-Analysis of the Distinction between Reactive and Proactive Aggression in Children and Adolescents. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 35(4), 522-35.
57. Poulin, F., & Boivin, M. (2000). Reactive and proactive aggression: Evidence of a two factor model. Psychological Assessment, 12(2), 115–122.
58. Poythress, N. G., & Hall, J. R. (2011). Psychopathy and impulsivity reconsidered. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 16(2), 120-134.
59. Preston, O. C., & Anestis, J. C. (2020). The indirect relationships between psychopathic traits and proactive and reactive aggression through empathy and emotion dysregulation. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 42(3), 409-423. Doi:10.1007/s10862-019-09760-z
60. Price, J. M., & Dodge, K. A. (1989). Reactive and Proactive aggression in childhood: Relations to peer status and social context dimension. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 17(4), 455-471.
61. Pulkkinen, L. (1996). Proactive and reactive aggression in early adolescence as precursors to anti- and prosocial behaviors in young adults. Aggressive Behavior, 22, 241-257.
62. Raine, A., Dodge, K., Loeber, R., & Reynolds, C. (2006). The Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire: Differential Correlates of Reactive and Proactive Aggression in Adolescent Boys. Journal of Aggressive Behavior, 32, 159-171.
63. Reidy, E.D., & Lilienfeld, O.S. (2011). Psychopathy, reactive aggression, and precarious proclamation: A review of behavioral, cognitive and biological research. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 16, 512-524
64. Reidy, E. D., Zeichner, A., Miller, D. J., & Martinez, A. M. (2007). Psychopathy and aggression: Examining the role of psychopathy factors in predicting laboratory aggression under hostile and instrumental conditions. Journal of Research in Personality 41(6), 1244-1251.
65. Rogstad, J. E., & Rogers, R. (2008). Gender differences in contributions of emotion to psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder. Clinical psychology review, 28(8), 1472-1484.
66. Salmivalli, C., & Nieminen, E. (2002). Proactive and Reactive Aggression among School Bullies, Victims, and Bully-Victims. Aggressive Behavior, 28(1), 30-40.
67. Sellbom, M. (2011). Elaborating on the construct validity of the Levenson Self- Report Psychopathy Scale in incarcerated and non-incarcerated samples. Law and Human Behavior, 35(6), 440-451.
68. Shagufta, S. (2020). Criminal Friends’ Influence on Criminal Behavior of Adult Offenders Moderated by Psychopathic Traits. Frontier Women University Journal of Social Sciences, 14(2), 108-116.
69. Shagufta, S. (2018). Construct Validity and Dimensionality of Levenson’s Self-Report Psychopathy Scale (LSRPS) in a sample Adult Incarcerated Offenders in KPK Pakistan. Journal of Social Sciences, 1(12), 84-95.
70. Shaw, D.S., Gilliom, M., &Giovannelli, J. (2000). Aggressive behavior disorders. In C.H. Zeanah, Jr. (Ed.), Handbook of Infant Mental Health, 397-411.
71. Silver, E., Mulvey, E. P., & Monahan, J. (1999). Assessing violence risk among discharged psychiatric patients: Toward an ecological approach. Law and Human Behavior, 23(2), 235-253
72. Singh, B., Mohanty, R., Lalrhiatpuia, Hoabam, M., & Mohit, S. (2014). Aggression and Violent Behavior: A Critical Review. Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Science, pp, 10-13.Skeem, J. L., Johansson
73. Standford, M. S., Houston, R.J., Mathias, C. W., Villemarette-Pittman, N.R., Helfritz, L. E., & Conklin, S. M. (2003). Characterizing Aggressive Behavior. Assessment, 10(2), 183-190.
74. Swogger, M. T., Walash, Z., Houston, R. J., Cashman-Brown, S., & Conner, K. R. (2010). Psychopathy and Axis 1 psychiatric disorder among criminal offenders: relationships to impulsive and proactive aggression. Aggressive Behavior, 36(1), 45-53.
75. Tanaka, J. S. (1987). How big is big enough? Sample size and goodness of fit in structural equation models with latent variables. Child Development, 58(1), 134–146.
76. Theodorakis, N. (2013). Psychopathy and its relationship to criminal behaviour. IALS Student Law Review, 1(1), 47-56.
77. Thomson, N. D., & Centifanti, L. C. (2018). Proactive and reactive aggression subgroups in typically developing children: The role of executive functioning, psychophysiology, and psychopathy. Child Psychiatry & Human Development, 49(2), 197-208.
78. Vitaro, F., Gendreau, P. L., Tremblay, R.E., & Olingny, P. (1998). Reactive and proactive aggression differentially predict later conduct problems. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 39(3), 377-385.
79. Williams, K. M., Nathanson, C., & Paulhus, D. L. (2003). Structure and validity of the self-report psychopathy scale-III in normal populations. Paper presented at the 111th annual convention of the American Psychological Association.
80. Woodworth, M., & Porter, S. (2002). In cold blood: Characteristics of criminal homicides as a function of psychopathy. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 111(3), 436-455.