Main Article Content

Sabina khatun
Sk maruf hossain
Dr. rajesh kumar sharma


depression, antidepressant, medicinal plant, force swimming test, tail suspension test, open field test


Depression refers to a state of low mood and aversion to activity characterized by depressed mood, loss of interest, reduced energy and concentration. The reasons for the disease include stimulation of MAO-A, inhibition of NA and 5-HT. Symptoms include the diminished interest of pleasure, feelings of worthlessness or inappropriate guilt, a decrease in appetite and libido, insomnia, and recurrent thoughts of death or suicide. There are plenty of synthetic drugs used to treat depression but not enough blissful for patients, moreover, these synthetic drugs have potential side effects. After decades of serious obsession with the modern medicinal system, people have started looking at the ancient healing systems like Ayurveda, Siddha, and Unani. Many scientists are researching plant material for treating this disorder and there are lots of publications on it. But this is not sufficient for treating depression; further outcome should come into light that’s the purpose of our review.


Abstract 212 | Pdf Downloads 62


1. Rang HP, Dale MM, Ritter JM. Pharmacology. 4th ed. Scotland: Churchill Livingstone; 2000. 550 p.
2. Gautam RK, Dixit PK, Mittal S. Herbal Sources of Antidepressant Potential: A Review. Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res. 2013;18(1):86–91.
3. WHO. The World Health Report–Mental health: new understanding new hope. Geneva: WHO; 2001.
4. Reynolds EH. Brain and Mind: A Challenge for WHO. Lancet. 2003;361(9373):1924–1925.
5. Gold PW, Goodwin FK, Chrousos GP. Clinical and Biochemical Manifestations of Depression. N Engl J Med. 1988;319(6):348–353.
6. WHO. Mental and Neurological Disorders ‘Depression’. World Health Organization; 2001. p. 1–4.
7. Rang HP, Dale MM, Ritter JM. Pharmacology. 5th ed. Scotland: Churchill Livingstone; 2003. p. 1–535. Holeboard test. Panlab.
8. Porsolt RD, Le Pichon M, Jalfre M. Depression: a new animal model sensitive to antidepressant treatments. Nature. 1977;266(5604):730–732.
9. Porsolt RD, Bertin A, Jalfre M. Behavioural despair in mice: a primary screening test for antidepressants. Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther. 1977;229(2):327–336.
10. Steru L, Chermat R, Thierry B, et al. The tail suspension test: a new method for screening antidepressants in mice. Psychopharmacology. 1985;85(3):367–370.
11. Carlini EA, Contar JDD, Silva–Filho AR, et al. Pharmacology of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf). I. effects of teas prepared from the leaves on laboratory animals. J Ethnopharmacol. 1986;17(1):37–64.
12. Deacon RM. Measuring motor coordination in mice. J Vis Exp. 2013;75:e2609.
13. Komada M, Takao K, Miyakawa T. Elevated plus maze for mice. J Vis Exp. 2008;22:1–4.
14. Singh B, Rastogi RP. A reinvestigation of the triterpenes of Centella asiatica. Phytochemistry. 1969;8(5):917–921.
15. Agarwal VS. Economic plants of India. India: FAO; 1990. 127 p.
16. Ramanathan M, Sivakumar S, Anandvijayakumar PR, et al. Neuroprotective evaluation of standardized extract of Centella asiatica in monosodium glutamate treated rats. Ind J of Exp Bio. 2007;45(5):425– 431.
17. Gupta YK, Veerendrakumar MV, Srivatsava AK. Effect of Centella asiatica on pentylenetetrazole–induced kindling, cognition and oxidative stress in rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2003;74(3):579–585.
18. Kumar MV, Gupta YK. Effect of different extract of Centella asiatica on cognition and markers of oxidative stress in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2002;79(2):253–260.
19. Pragada RR, Veeravalli KK, Chowdary KPR, et al. Cardioprotective activity of Hydrocotyle asiatica L., in ischemia–reperfusion induced myocardial infarction in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2004;93(1):105–108.
20. Selvi PT, Kumar MS, Rajesh R, et al. Antidepressant activity of ethanolic extract of leaves of Centellaasiatica. Linn by In vivo methods. Asian J Res Pharm Sci. 2012;2(2):76–79.
21. Patil SA, Patil SB. Toxicological Studies of Momordica charantia Linn Seed extracts in male mice. Int J Morphol. 2011;29(4):1212–1218.
22. Kokate CK, Purohit AP, Gokhlale SB. Pharmacognosy. 34th ed. India: Nirali Prakashan; 2006. p. 218–219.
23. Gautam RK, Dixit PK, Mittal S. Herbal Sources of Antidepressant Potential: A Review. Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res. 2013;18(1):86–91.
24. Rajput MS, Sinha S, Mathur V, et al. Herbal Antidepressants. Int J Pharma Frontier Res. 2011;1(1):159–169.
25. Ganesan A, Natesan S, Perumal PG, et al. Anxiolytic, antidepressant and anti–inflammatory activities of methanol extract of Momordica charantiaLinn Leaves (Cucurbitaceae). Iranian J Pharmacol Ther. 2008;7(1):43–47.
26. Saldanha T, Kaspate D, Karmarkar B, et al. Evaluation of Antidepressant Activity of Ethanolic Extract Momordica charantia Unripen Fruit. Int J Pharm Sci & Drug Res. 2015;7(1):68–71.
27. Vogel HG. Drug Discovery and Evaluation: Pharmacological Assays. 2nd ed. Germany: Springer–Verlag; 2002. p. 559–561.
28. Rao KNV, Swarna K, Banji D, et al. Establishment of two varieties in Tecoma stans of Indian origin pharmacolognostically and pharmacologically. J Phytology. 2010;2(8):92–102.
29. Khare CP. Indian medicinal plants and illustrated dictionary. India: Springer; 2007.
30. Kameshwaran S, Sundaraganapathy R, Thenmozhi S, et al. Assessment of antidepressant activity of methanol and aqueous extract of Tecoma stans flowers using tail suspension test and forced swim test. International J of Pharmacol Res. 2014;4(2):78–82.
31. Mukherjee PK, Kumar V, Kumar NS, et al. The ayurvedic medicine Clitoria ternatea–From traditional use to scientific assessment. J Ethnopharmacol. 2008;120(3):291–301.
32. Taur DJ, Patil RY. Evaluation of antiasthmatic activity of Clitoria ternatea L. roots. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011;136(2):374–376.
33. Jain NN, Ohal CC, Shroff SK, et al. Clitoria ternatea and the CNS.
34. Pharmacol Biochem and Behav. 2003;75(3):529–536.
35. Sharma AK, Majumdar M. Some observations on the effect of Clitoria ternatea Linn. on changes in serum sugar level and small intestinal mucosal carbohydrase activities in alloxan diabetes. Calcutta Medical Journal. 1990;87:168–171.
36. Devi BP, Boominathan R, Mandal SC. Anti–inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic properties of Clitoria ternatea root. Fitoterapia. 2003;74(4):345–349.
37. Taranalli AD, Cheeramkuzhy TC. Influence of Clitoria ternatea extracts on memory and central cholinergic activity in rats. Pharmac Biol. 2000;38(1):51–56.
38. Rai KS, Murthy KD, Karanth KS, et al. Clitoria ternatea root extract enhances acetylcholine content in rat hippocampus. Fitoterapia. 2002;73(7):685–689.
39. Parvathi M, Ravishankar K. Evaluation of antidepressant, motor coordination and locomotor activities of ethanolic root extract of Clitoria ternatea. J of Nat Rem. 2013;13(1):19–24.
40. Umadevi P, Murugan S, Jennifer Suganthi S, et al. Evaluation of antidepressant like activity of Cucurbita pepo seed extracts in rats. Int J of Curr Pharma Res. 2011;3(1):108–113.
41. Shoba FG, Thomas M. Study of antidiarrhoeal activity of four medicinal plants in castor–oil induced diarrhoea. J Ethnopharmacol. 2001;76(1):73–76.
42. Kamalakkannan N, Prince PSM. Hypoglycaemic effect of water extracts of Aegle marmelos fruits in streptozotocin diabetic rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2003;87(2):207–210.
43. Costa–Lotufo LV, Khan MTH, Ather A, et al. Studies of the anticancer potential of plants used in Bangladeshi folk medicine. J Ethonopharmacol. 2005;99(1):21–30.
44. Jagetia GC, Venkatesh P, Baliga MS. Evaluation of radio protective effect of bael leaf (Aegle marmelos) extract in mice. Int J Radiat Biol. 2004;80(4):281–290.
45. Rana BK, Jain AK. Evaluation of anti–fungal activity of essential oil isolated from leaves of the A. marmelos. J Ethnopharmacol. 1997;57(1):29–37.
46. Mazumder R, Bhattacharya A, Mazumder A, et al. Antibacterial evaluation of Aegle marmelos (Correa) Linn. root extract. Phytother Res. 2006;20(1):82–84.
47. Sahare KN, Anandhraman V, Meshram VG, et al. Anti–microfilarial activity of methanol extract of Vitex negundoand Aegle marmelosand their phytochemical analysis. Indian J Exp Biol. 2008;46(2):128–131.
48. Arul V, Miyazaki S, Dhananjayan R. Studies on the anti–inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic properties of the leaves of Aegle marmelosCorr. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005;96(1–2):159–163.
49. Kothari S, Minda M, Tonpay SD. Anxiolytic and antidepressant activities of methanol extract of Aegle marmelos leaves in mice. Ind. J of Phy Phar. 2010;54(4):318–328.
50. Gonzalez–Trujano ME, Pena EI, Martinez AL, et al. Evaluation of the antinociceptive effect of Rosmarinus officinalis L. using three different experimental models in rodents. J Ethnopharmacol. 2007;111(3):476– 482.
51. Erkan N, Ayranci G, Ayranci E. Antioxidant activities of rosemary (Rosmarinus Officinalis L.) extract, blackseed (Nigella sativa L.) essential oil, carnosic acid, rosmarinic acid and sesamol. Food Chem. 2008;110(1):76–82.
52. Duke JA. Alzheimaretto. J Med Food. 1998;1(1):53.
53. Perry EK, Pickering AT, Wang WW, et al. Medicinal plants and Alzheimer’s disease: Integrating ethnobotanical and contemporary scientific evidence. J Altern and Complement Med. 1998;4(4):419–428.
54. Ozarowski M, Mikolajczak PL, Bogacz A, et al. Rosmarinus officinalis L. leaf extract improves memory impairment and affects acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase activities in rat brain. Fitoterapia. 2013;91:261–271.
55. Abdelhalim A, Karim N, Chebib M, et al. Antidepressant, anxiolytic and antinociceptive activities of constituents from Rosmarinus officinalis. J of Phar & Pharm Sci. 2015;18(4):448–459.
56. Zargari A. Medicinal plants. Tehran: Tehran University Publications; 1991. p. 77–83.
57. Blumenthal M, Goldberg A, Brinckmann J. Herbal Medicine–Expanded Commission E Mongraphs. In: Newton MA, editor. Integrative Medicine Communications; 2000. p. 230–232.
58. Kuhn MA, Winston D. Herbal therapy and supplements: a scientific and traditional approach. USA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2000. p. 210–212.
59. Emamghoreishi M, Talebianpour MS. Antidepressant effect of Melissa officinalis in the forced swimming test. DARU J Pharm Sci. 2009;17(1):42–47.
60. Jain SC, Sharma RA, Jain R, et al. Antimicrobial screening of Cassia occidentalis Linn in vivo and in vitro. Phytothearpy Res. 1998;12(3):200– 204.
61. Saganuwan AS, Gulumbe ML. Evaluation of in vitro antimicrobial activities and phytochemical constituents of Cassia occidentalis. Animal Res Intern. 2006;3(3):566–569.
62. Arya V, Yadav S, Kumar S, et al. Antimicrobial activity of Cassia occidentalis L. (leaf) against various human pathogenic microbes. Life Sci Med Res. 2010;2010:1–11.
63. Tona L, Ngimbi NP, Tsakala M, et al. Antimalarial activity of 20 crude extracts from nine African Medicinal plants used in Kinshasa Congo. J Ethnopharmacol. 1999;68(1):193–203.
64. Sharma N, Trikha P, Athar M, et al. In vitro inhibition of carcinogen– induced mutagenicity by Cassiaoccidentalis and Emblica officinalis. Drug and chemical Toxicol. 2000;23(3):477–484.
65. Jafri MA, Subhani MJ, Javed K, et al. Hepatoprotective activity of leaves of Cassia occidentalis Linn against paracetmaol and ethyl alcohol intoxification in rats. J Ethanopharmacol. 1999;66(3):355–361.
66. Verma L, Khatri A, Kaushik B, et al. Antidiabetic activity of Cassia occidentalis Linn. in normal and alloxan–induced diabetic rats. Ind J Pharmacol. 2010;42(4):224–228.
67. Shafeen S, Reddy TS, Arafath S, et al. Evaluation of antianxiety and antidepressant activity of Cassia occidentalis leaves. Asian J Pharm Clin Res. 2012;5(3):1–4.
68. Grubben GJH, Denton OA. Plant Resources of Tropical African vegetables. Netherlands: PROTA Foundation, Backhuys Publishers; 2004.
69. Rathee S, Ahuja D, Rathee P, et al. Cytotoxic and antibacterial activity of Basella alba whole plant: A relatively unexplored plant. Pharmacologyonline. 2010;3:651–658.
70. Roy SK, Gangopadhyay G, Mukherjee KK. Is stem twining form of Basella Alba L. a naturally occurring variant? Current Science. 2010;98(10):1370–1375.
71. Sen K, Goel A, Rawal S, et al. Antimicrobial activity of Basella rubraleaves. Intern J Pharma Sci Res. 2010;1(2):88–91.

72. Bamidele O, Akinnuga AM, Olorunfemi JO, et al. Effects of aqueous extract of Basella alba leaves on haematological and biochemical parameters in Albino rats. African J Biotechnol. 2015;9(41):6952–6955.
73. Nirmala A, Saroja S, Devi GG. Antidiabetic activity of Basella rubra and its relationship: with the antioxidant property. British Biotechnol J. 2011;1(1):1–9.
74. Saroj V, Rao PS, Rao SK, et al. Pharmacognostical study of Basella alba stem. Intern. J Res Pharma and Biol Sci. 2012;3:1093–1094.
75. Abhinayani, Goud GN, Nagamani KC, et al. Antidepressant and Skeletal Muscle Relaxant Activity of Methanolic Extracts of Basella alba. L. Asian J Biomed Pharma Sci. 2016;6(55):7–10.
76. Pongpan N, Luanratana O, Suntornsuk L. Rapid reversed–phase high performance liquid chromatography for vitexin analysis and fingerprint of Passiflora foetida. Current science. 2007;93(3):378–382.
77. Dhawan K, Kumar S, Sharma A. Anti–anxiety studies on extracts ofPassiflora incarnate Linneaus. J Ethnopharmacol. 2001;78(2):165–170.
78. Soulimani R, Younos C, Jarmouni S, et al. Behavioral effects of Passiflor aincarnata L. and its indole alkaloid and flavonoid derivatives and maltol in the mouse. J Ethnopharmacol. 1997;57(1):11–20.
79. Santosh P, Venugopl R, Nilakash AS, et al. Antidepressant activity of methanolic extract of Passiflora foetida leaves in mice. Int J of Pharm Pharm Sci. 2011;3(1):112–115.
80. Chahardehi AM, Ibrahim D, Abolhassani F, et al. Antidepressant– like effect of extracts from Urtica dioica in mice model of depression. In Proceedings of the Annual International Conference, Syiah Kuala University–Life Sciences & Engineering Chapter; 2012:2(1).
81. Chakravarti RN, Chakravarti D. Andrographolide, the active constituent of Andrographis paniculata Nees; A Preliminary Communication. Ind Med Gaz. 1951;86(3):96–97.
82. Patil R, Chauhan VS, Venkat RP. Anxiolytic and anti–depressant like effects of leaves of Andrographys paniculata. Int J Pharm Bio Sci. 2014;5(3):501–507.
83. De Vry J, Maurel S, Schreiber R, et al. Comparison of Hypericum extracts with imipramine and fluoxetine in animal models of depression and alcoholism. Eur Neuropshycopharmacol. 1999;9(6):461–468.
84. Bach–Rojecky L, Kalodjera Z, Samarzija I. The antidepressant activity of Hypericum perforatum L. measured by two experimental methods on mice. Acta Pharm. 2004;54(2):157–162.
85. Ryan D, Kendall M, Robards K. Bioactivity of oats as it relates to cardiovascular disease. Nutr Res Rev. 2007;20(2):147–162.
86. Guideline on Acute Oral Toxicity (AOT). Environmental Health Safety Monograph Series on Testing and Adjustment No.425. India: Bhaskara Institute of Pharmacy; 2001.
87. Chandrakant J, Mathad P, Mety S, et al. Phytochemical and antidepressant activities of Selaginella bryopteris(L.) Baker on albino mice. Int J App Biol Pharm Tech. 2015;6(4):14–19.
88. Tariq KA, Chishti MZ, Ahmad F, et al. Anthelmintic activity of extracts of Artemisia absinthiumagainst ovine nematodes. Vet Parasitol. 2009;160(1–2):83–88.
89. Kordali S, Cakir A, Mavi A, et al. Screening of chemical composition and antifungal and antioxidant activities of the essential oils from three Turkish Artemisiaspecies. J Agri Food Chem. 2005;53(5):1408–1416.
90. Lopes–Lutz D, Alviano DS, Alviano CS, et al. Screening of chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Artemisiaessential oils. Phytochemistry. 2008;69(8):1732– 1738.
91. Canadanovic–Brunet JM, Djilas SM, Cetkovic GS, et al. Free–radical scavenging activity of wormwood (Artemisia absinthiumL) extracts. J Sci Food Agric. 2005;85(2):265–272.
92. Nin S, Arfaioli P, Bosetto M. Quantitative determination of some essential oil components of selected Artemisia absinthium plants. J Essential Oil Res. 1995;7(3):271–277.
93. Mahmoudi M, Ebrahimzadeh MA, Ansaroudi F, et al. Antidepressant and antioxidant activities of Artemisia absinthium L. at flowering stage. Afri J Biotechnol. 2009;8(24):7170–7175.
94. Manalachioaie R, Sevastre B, Iulia P, et al. Comparative Evaluation of Antidepressant Effects of Two Hypericum Species (H. perforatum L. and H. maculatum C) in Swiss Mice. Veterinary Medicine. 2010;67(1):115– 119.
95. Tsala DE, Theophile D, Judith N, et al. Screening of Alafia multiflorafor antibacterial, antiradical activity and LD50 investigation. Int J Pharmacol. 2007;3(4):327–333.
96. Foyet HS, Tsala DE, Bouba AA, et al. Anxiolytic and antidepressant–like effects of the aqueous extract of Alafia multiflora stem barks in rodents. Advances in Pharmacological Sciences. 2012:1–8.
97. Khare CP. Indian medicinal plants, an illustrated dictionary. 1st ed. India: Springer Private Limited; 2007.
98. Dolati K, Rakhshandeh H, Shafei MN. Evaluation of antidepressant effect of ethanolic extract of Rosa damascena using forced swimming test. Avicenna J Phytomed. 2012;2(1):46–51.
99. Potdar VH, Kibile SJ. Evaluation of antidepressant–like effect of Citrus Maxima leaves in animal models of depression. Iran J Basic Med Sci. 2011;14(5):478–483.
100. Singh HK, Dhawan BN. The effect of Bacopa monniera Linn. (Brahmi) extract on avoidance responses in rat. J Ethanopharmacol. 1982;5(2):205–214.
101. Sen S, Chakraborty R, Sridhar C, et al. Free radicals, antioxidants, Diseases and phytomedicines: Current status and Future prospect. Int J Pharma Sci Rev and Res. 2010;3(1):91–100.
102. Valko M, Leibfritz D, Monco J, et al. Free radicals and antioxidants in normal physiological functions and human disease. Int J Biochem Cell Biolo. 2007;39(1):44–84.
103. Mohan H. Cell Injury and cellular Adaptations. In: Textbook of Pathology. India: Jaypee Brothers medical publishers; 2010. p. 21–34.
104. Kumar V, Abbas AK, Fausto N. Cellular Adaptations, cell injury and cell death. In: Robbins, Cotran, editors. Pathologic basis of disease. Pennsylvania: Saunders; 2009.
105. Sudharani D, Krishna KL, Deval K, et al. Pharmacological profile of Bacopa monnieri: a review. Int J Pharma. 2011;1(1):15–23.
106. Mannan A, Abir AB, Rahman R. Antidepressant–like effects of methanolic extract of Bacopa monniera in mice. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2015;15(1):337.