Main Article Content

Pratima Tripathi
Vijay Kumar Ramnani
Alok Pandey



Klebsiella spp. is a gram negative, non-motile, encapsulated, lactose fermenting and facultative anaerobe belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family. [1] Important virulence factors of the Klebsiella pneumoniae are capsular polysaccharides, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and siderophores [2]. Klebsiella pneumoniae cause various infections like pneumonia, urinary tract infections, meningitis, wound infections, osteomyelitis, bacteremia, septicemia, gastroenteritis and many more infections in developing countries [3]. It is also one of the main sources of ventilator-related pneumonia (VAP) among patients in intensive care units (ICUs) and causes 83% of hospital-acquired (HA) pneumonia.

Abstract 73 | pdf Downloads 49


1. DOI : 10.36347/sajb.2015.v03i11.009
2. Shilpa K, Ruby Thomas and Allavarapu Ramyashree. Isolation and Antimicrobial Susceptibility pattern of Klebsiella pneumoniae from sputum samples, International Journal of Biomedical and Advance Research, 2016, 7(02):053-057.
3. DOI:
4. DOI: 10.3934/microbiol.2023011
5. Magiorakos AP, Srinivasan A, Carey RB, et al. Multidrug-resistant, extensively drug-resistant and pandrug-resistant bacteria: an international expert proposal for interim standard definitions for acquired resistance. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2012;18(3):268–281. doi:10.1111/j.1469-0691.2011.03570.x
6. Di Pilato V, Arena F, Tascini C, et al. Mcr-1.2, a new mcr variant carried on a transferable plasmid from a colistin-resistant KPC carbapenemase- producing Klebsiella pneumoniae strain of sequence type 512. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2016;60(9):5612–5615. doi:10.1128/AAC.01075-16
7. Kim Y, Bae IK, Lee H, Jeong SH, Yong D, Lee K. In vivo emergence of colistin resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates of sequence type 357 during colistin treatment. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2014;79(3):362–366. doi:10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2014.03.027
8. Kline KE. Investigation of first identified mcr-1 Gene in an isolate from a US patient pennsylvania, 2016. MMWR Surveill Summ. 2016;65(36):977–978.
9. Collee JG, Fraser AG, Marmian BP. Mackie and McCartney Practical Medical Microbiology. Pearson Professional Ltd 14th edition. 1996. ISBN: 0443047219
10. Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI). Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Suceptiblitiy Testing; 29th Informational Supplement. M 100 S27. Wayne, Pennsylvania, USA: CLSI; 2019.
11. Newton-Foot M, Snyman Y, Maloba MR, Whitelaw AC. Plasmidmediated mcr-1 colistin resistance in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. clinical isolates from the Western Cape region of South Africa. Antimicrob Resist Infect Control. 2017;6(1):78. doi:10.1186/s13756-017-02348
12. The European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing. Breakpoint tables for interpretation of MICs and zone diameters.Version 6.0, 2016. Available from: Accessed March 30, 2016.
13. Sheu CC, Chang YT, Lin SY, Chen YH, Hsueh PR. Infections caused by carbapenem‑resistant Enterobacteriaceae: An update on therapeutic options. Front Microbiol 2019;10:80.
14. Cui X, Zhang H, Du H. Carbapenemases in Enterobacteriaceae: Detection and Antimicrobial Therapy. Front Microbiol 2019;10:1823.
15. Veeraraghavan B, Shankar C, Karunasree S, Kumari S, Ravi R, Ralph R. Carbapenem resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from bloodstream infection: Indian experience. Pathog Glob Health 2017;111:240‑6.
16. Ravichitra KN, Prakash PH, Subbarayudu S, Rao US. Isolation and antibiotic sensitivity of Klebsiella pneumoniae from pus, sputum and urine samples. Int J Curr Microbiol App Sci. 2014;3:115-19.
17. Bhaskar BH, Mulki SS, Joshi S, Adhikari R, Venkatesh BM. Colistin Resistance In Carbapenem-Resistant Klebsiella Pneumoniae Strains. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2017; 10(9):70-73. doi:
18. Kanwalpreet Sodhi, Vishal Mittal, Muktanjali Arya, Manender Kumar, Atul Phillips, Benika Kajla, Pattern of colistin resistance in Klebsiella isolates in an Intensive Care Unit of a tertiary care hospital in India, Journal of Infection and Public Health 2020;13(7):1018-1021. doi:
19. Lan Y, Zhou M, Jian Z, et al. Prevalence of pks gene cluster and characteristics of Klebsiella pneumoniae-induced bloodstream infections [J]. J Clin Lab Anal. 2019;33(4):e22838.
20. Cubero M, Grau L, Tubau F, et al. Hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae clones causing bacteraemia in adults in a teaching hospital in Barcelona, Spain (2007–2013) [J]. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2016;22(2):154-160.
Li J, Ren J, Wang W, et al. Risk factors and clinical outcomes of hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae induced bloodstream infections [J]. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2017;37(4):679-689.