Main Article Content
Introduction: Ischemic stroke stands as a critical and prevalent neurological disorder, causing significant morbidity and mortality worldwide.
Objectives: The basic aim of the study is to find the frequency of cardiac risk factors in ischemic stroke patients.
Material and methods: This retrospective study was conducted at Liaquat National Hospital Karachi from June 2023 to September 2023. Patient demographics, including age and gender, were meticulously documented for each case. Additionally, an extensive review of medical records was undertaken to collect relevant clinical data, focusing on the presence or absence of cardiac risk factors.
Results: A total of 240 patients with confirmed ischemic stroke were included in the analysis. The study population exhibited a mean age of 68 years, with a fairly even distribution between males (45%) and females (55%). Hypertension: Prevalent in 68% of patients, making it the most common cardiac risk factor. Atrial Fibrillation is present in 30% of cases. History of coronary artery disease was present in 42% of patients. Approximately 25% of patients had a diagnosis of heart failure.
Conclusion: It is concluded that early detection, diagnosis, and targeted management of the risk factors are crucial for preventing stroke. Understanding the distribution of stroke subtypes within the population further informs personalized treatment strategies.
2. George, M. G. (2020). Risk factors for ischemic stroke in younger adults: a focused update. Stroke, 51(3), 729-735.
3. Belani, P., Schefflein, J., Kihira, S., Rigney, B., Delman, B. N., Mahmoudi, K., ... & Doshi, A. H. (2020). COVID-19 is an independent risk factor for acute ischemic stroke. American Journal of Neuroradiology, 41(8), 1361-1364.
4. Kim, H., Kim, S., Han, S., Rane, P. P., Fox, K. M., Qian, Y., & Suh, H. S. (2019). Prevalence and incidence of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and its risk factors in Korea: a nationwide population-based study. BMC public health, 19, 1-11.
5. Boot, E., Ekker, M. S., Putaala, J., Kittner, S., De Leeuw, F. E., &Tuladhar, A. M. (2020). Ischaemic stroke in young adults: a global perspective. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 91(4), 411-417.
6. Shi, W., Xing, L., Jing, L., Tian, Y., Yan, H., Sun, Q., ... & Liu, S. (2020). Value of triglyceride-glucose index for the estimation of ischemic stroke risk: insights from a general population. Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, 30(2), 245-253.
7. Yang, X. M., Rao, Z. Z., Gu, H. Q., Zhao, X. Q., Wang, C. J., Liu, L. P., ... & China National Stroke Registry II Investigators. (2019). Atrial fibrillation known before or detected after stroke share similar risk of ischemic stroke recurrence and death. Stroke, 50(5), 1124-1129.
8. Abraham, G., Malik, R., Yonova-Doing, E., Salim, A., Wang, T., Danesh, J., ... &Dichgans, M. (2019). Genomic risk score offers predictive performance comparable to clinical risk factors for ischaemic stroke. Nature communications, 10(1), 5819.
9. Xu, J., Dai, L., Zhang, Y., Wang, A., Li, H., Wang, Y., ... & Wang, Y. (2021). Severity of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and risk of future ischemic stroke events. Stroke, 52(1), 103-110.
10. Hathidara, M. Y., Saini, V., & Malik, A. M. (2019). Stroke in the young: a global update. Current neurology and neuroscience reports, 19, 1-8.
11. Howard, V. J., Madsen, T. E., Kleindorfer, D. O., Judd, S. E., Rhodes, J. D., Soliman, E. Z., ... & Cushman, M. (2019). Sex and race differences in the association of incident ischemic stroke with risk factors. JAMA neurology, 76(2), 179-186.
12. Khanevski, A. N., Bjerkreim, A. T., Novotny, V., Næss, H., Thomassen, L., Logallo, N., ... & NOR‐STROKE study group. (2019). Recurrent ischemic stroke: incidence, predictors, and impact on mortality. Acta NeurologicaScandinavica, 140(1), 3-8.
13. Elgendy, I. Y., Gad, M. M., Mahmoud, A. N., Keeley, E. C., &Pepine, C. J. (2020). Acute stroke during pregnancy and puerperium. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 75(2), 180-190.
14. Olesen, K. K., Madsen, M., Gyldenkerne, C., Thrane, P. G., Würtz, M., Thim, T., ... &Maeng, M. (2019). Diabetes mellitus is associated with increased risk of ischemic stroke in patients with and without coronary artery disease. Stroke, 50(12), 3347-3354.
15. Katsoularis, I., Fonseca-Rodríguez, O., Farrington, P., Lindmark, K., & Connolly, A. M. F. (2021). Risk of acute myocardial infarction and ischaemic stroke following COVID-19 in Sweden: a self-controlled case series and matched cohort study. The Lancet, 398(10300), 599-607.
16. Ekker, M. S., Verhoeven, J. I., Vaartjes, I., van Nieuwenhuizen, K. M., Klijn, C. J., & de Leeuw, F. E. (2019). Stroke incidence in young adults according to age, subtype, sex, and time trends. Neurology, 92(21), e2444-e2454.
17. Fridman, S., Bullrich, M. B., Jimenez-Ruiz, A., Costantini, P., Shah, P., Just, C., ... &Sposato, L. A. (2020). Stroke risk, phenotypes, and death in COVID-19: systematic review and newly reported cases. Neurology, 95(24), e3373-e3385.
18. Lee, S. R., Choi, E. K., Jung, J. H., Han, K. D., Oh, S., & Lip, G. Y. (2021). Lower risk of stroke after alcohol abstinence in patients with incident atrial fibrillation: a nationwide population-based cohort study. European heart journal, 42(46), 4759-4768.
19. Nepal, R., Choudhary, M. K., Dhungana, S., Katwal, S., Khanal, S. B., Bista, M., ... &Kafle, D. R. (2020). Prevalence and major cardiac causes of cardio-embolic stroke and in-hospital mortality in Eastern Nepal. Journal of Clinical and Preventive Cardiology, 9(1), 19-24.
20. Xing, L., Jing, L., Tian, Y., Liu, S., Lin, M., Du, Z., ... & Liu, S. (2020). High prevalence of stroke and uncontrolled associated risk factors are major public health challenges in rural northeast China: a population-based study. International Journal of Stroke, 15(4), 399-411.