Main Article Content

Mudita Mishra
Seema Tomar
Ashutosh Mishra



Parkinsonism is a neurodegenerative disease, mainly imbalance in dopamine neurotransmitter in mid brain, which manifestation of dysfunctions of extra pyramidal like akinesia, tremor, rigidity and catalepsy etc., even cognitive and memory loss. The current study is framed to evaluate the effect of Psidium guajava and Madhuca indica extract and fraction in Rotenone (RTN) induced Parkinson disease (PD) in mice. Further ,in vivo anti-PD activity has been evaluated by Rotarod, actophotometer, and chimney test to assess extrapyramidal, cognitive and memory function. Later, changes in biomarker level such as reduced glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and dopamine level in the whole brain were measured. Finally, histopathology of cerebrum area was examined at 40x magnification to access restoring integrity and maintaining the architecture of neuronal cell in the treatment group compared to control group and L-DOPA as a standard treatment group.

The Rotarod, Actophotometer, and chimney test demonstrated that rotenone group administration declines performance time, decreases locomotion, cognitive and memory respectively. The treatment of Psidium guajava and Madhuca indica extracts and fractions(200, and 400 mg/kg p.o. and 50, 100mg/kgs significantly (p < 0.05 to p < 0.0001) reversed whole brain reduced glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and dopamine level altered and significant pathological changes occur. The current study provides validation of Psidium guajava and Madhuca indica extracts and fractions for its anti-PD activity and could be a valuable source for the treatment of PD in future.

Abstract 143 | PDF Downloads 55


1. Aebi, H., 1984. Methods in Enzymology. Academic Press, New York, p. 121. Al-Hindawi, M.K., Al-Deen, I.H., Nabi, M.H., Ismail, M.A., 1989. Anti-inflammatory activity of some Iraqi plants using intact rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 26, 163–168
2. Begum, S.; Hasan S. I.; Chemical Constituents from the leaves of Psidium guajava. Intrnl centre for Chem Sci. 2003, 4, 136-141.
3. Birhanie MW, Walle B, Rebba K. Hypnotic effect of the essential oil from the leaves of Myrtus communis on mice. Nature and Science of Sleep. 2016;8:267.
4. DeMaagd G, Philip A. Parkinson’s disease and its management: part 1: disease entity, risk factors, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and diagnosis. Pharmacy and therapeutics. 2015 Aug;40(8):504.
5. Elliott PJ, Close SP, Walsh DM, Hayes AG, Marriott AS. Neuroleptic-induced catalepsy as a model of Parkinson's disease II. Effect of glutamate antagonists. Journal of Neural Transmission-Parkinson's Disease and Dementia Section. 1990 Jun;2(2):91-100.
6. Ellman GL. Tissue sulfhydryl groups. Archives of biochemistry and biophysics. 1959 May 1;82(1):70-7.
7. Fang, W.; Chen, H. Y.; Zang, U.J., Deng, F.G.; Chemical Components and Bioactivities of Psidium guajava. Internatnl Journl of Food Nutritn and Safety. 2014, 5 (2) 98-114.
8. Goverdhan P, Sravanthi A, Mamatha T. Neuroprotective effects of meloxicam and selegiline in scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment and oxidative stress. International Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease. 2012.
9. Hardman, J. G.; Limbird, L. E. Treatment of Central Nervous System Degenerative Disorders. In Goodman & Gilman’s the Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. Standaert G. D., Young, A. B. 10th ed.; McGraw-Hill: New York, 2001; p 552.
10. Hwang O. Role of oxidative stress in Parkinson's disease. Experimental neurobiology. 2013 Mar;22(1):11.
11. Krall, R. L., Penry, J. K., White, B. G., Kupferberg, H. J., Swinyard, E. A., (1978): Antiepileptic drug development anticonvulsant drug screening. Epilepsia., 19: 409-428.
12. Manoharan S, Guillemin GJ, Abiramasundari RS, Essa MM, Akbar M, Akbar MD. The role of reactive oxygen species in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and Huntington’s disease: a mini review. Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity. 2016 Oct;2016.
13. Mercadante, Z.; Steck, A.; Pfander, H.; Carotenoids from Guava Psidium guajava, Isolation and Structure Elucidation.J. Agric. Food Chem., 1999, 47 (1), 145–151.
14. Misra HP, Fridovich I. The role of superoxide anion in the autoxidation of epinephrine and a simple assay for superoxide dismutase. Journal of Biological chemistry. 1972 May 25;247(10):3170-5.
15. Muhammad, A.; Abubakar, E.M.; The use of Psidium guajava Linn. in treating wound, skin and soft tissue infections. Scintfc Resrch and Essay 2009 4 (6) 605-611.
16. Naidu PS, Singh A, Kaur P, Sandhir R, Kulkarni SK (2003) Possible mechanism of action in melatonin attenuation of haloperidol- induced orofacial dyskinesia. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 74(3):641–648
17. Nor, N.; Yatim, V.; Psidium Guajava (Guava): A Plant of Multipurpose Medicinal Applications. Med Aromat Plants. 2010, 1, 104-108.
18. Ohkawa H, Ohishi N, Yagi K. Assay for lipid peroxides in animal tissues by thiobarbituric acid reaction. Analytical biochemistry. 1979 Jun 1;95(2):351-8.
19. Patil, S. P.; Jain, P. D.; Sancheti, J. S.; Ghumatkar, P. J.; Tambe, R.; Sathaye, S. Neuroprotective and Neurotrophic Effects of Apigenin and Luteolin Induced Parkinsonism in Mice. Neuropharmcol. 2014, 86, 192- 202.
20. Uttara B, Singh AV, Zamboni P, Mahajan R. Oxidative stress and neurodegenerative diseases: a review of upstream and downstream antioxidant therapeutic options. Current neuropharmacology. 2009 Mar 1;7(1):65-74.
21. Yuste, J. E.; Echeverry, M. B.; Bernal, F. R.; Gomez, C. M. A. 7- Nitroindazole Down regulates Dopamine/DARPP-32 Signaling in Neostriatal Neurons in Rat Model of Parkinson’s Disease. Neuropharmcol. 2014, 63, 1258-1267.