Main Article Content

Ozlem Akkemik


Optical Coherence tomography, Dentistry, Caries diagnosis, Oral soft tissues


Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive imaging technology that can provide high-resolution microscopic images for diagnostic purposes. The device measures the time delay and intensity of light that is backscattered and reflected from tissues, enabling tomographic imaging of their internal structures. OCT provides real-time imaging of tissues in situ circumventing the need for invasive techniques such as biopsy followed by histology or the need for X-rays. Its properties are used in many branches of medicine. Recently, the OCT visualization technique has been tested in different areas of dentistry. This research will provide the principles of diverse OCT methods and applications of this innovative modality in dentistry.

Abstract 176 | pdf Downloads 103


1. Machoy, M.; Seeliger, J.; Szyszka-Sommerfeld, L.; Koprowski, R.; Gedrange, T.; Woźniak, K. The Use of Optical Coherence Tomography in Dental Diagnostics: A State-of-the-Art Review. Journal of healthcare engineering 2017, 7560645. doi:10.1155/2017/7560645
2. Huang, D.; Swanson, E. A.; Lin, C. P.; Schuman, J. S.; Stinson, W. G.; Chang, W.; Hee, M. R.; Flotte, T.; Gregory, K.; Puliafito, C. A. Optical coherence tomography. Science (New York, N.Y.) 1991, 254, 1178–1181. doi:10.1126/science.1957169
3. Wilder-Smith, P.; Holtzman, J.; Epstein, J.,Le, A. Optical diagnostics in the oral cavity: an overview. Oral diseases 2010, 16(8), 717–728. doi:10.1111/j.1601-0825.2010.01684.x
4. Popescu, D. P.; Choo-Smith, L. P.; Flueraru, C.; Mao, Y.; Chang, S.; Disano, J.; Sherif, S.; Sowa, M. G. Optical coherence tomography: fundamental principles, instrumental designs and biomedical applications. Biophysical reviews 2011, 3(3), 155. doi:10.1007/s12551-011-0054-7
5. Hsieh, Y. S.; Ho, Y. C.; Lee, S. Y.; Chuang, C. C.; Tsai, J. C.; Lin, K. F.; Sun, C. W. Dental optical coherence tomography. Sensors (Basel, Switzerland) 2013, 13, 8928–8949. doi:10.3390/s130708928
6. Aumann, S.; Donner, S.; Fischer, J.; Müller, F. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT): Principle and Technical Realization. In J. F. Bille (Ed.), High Resolution Imaging in Microscopy and Ophthalmology: New Frontiers in Biomedical Optics. Cham (CH): Springer. 2019; pp. 59–85
7. Drexler, W.; Morgner, U.; Kärtner, F. X.; Pitris, C.; Boppart, S. A.; Li, X. D.; Ippen, E. P.; Fujimoto, J. G. In vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography. Optics letters 1999, 24, 1221–1223. doi:10.1364/ol.24.001221
8. Mohamad Saberi, F. N.; Sukumaran, P.; Ung, N. M.; Liew, Y. M. Assessment of demineralized tooth lesions using optical coherence tomography and other state-of-the-art technologies: a review. Biomedical engineering online 2022. 21(1), 83. doi:10.1186/s12938-022-01055-x
9. Fujimoto J. G. Optical coherence tomography for ultrahigh resolution in vivo imaging. Nature biotechnology 2003, 21, 1361–1367. doi:10.1038/nbt892
10. Leitgeb, R. A.; Werkmeister, R. M.; Blatter, C.; Schmetterer, L. Doppler optical coherence tomography. Progress in retinal and eye research 2014, 41, 26–43.
11. Walther, J.; Golde, J.; Kirsten, L.; Tetschke, F.; Hempel, F.; Rosenauer, T.; Hannig, C.; Koch, E. In vivo imaging of human oral hard and soft tissues by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography. Journal of biomedical optics 2017, 22, 1–17. doi:10.1117/1.JBO.22.12.121717
12. Morgner, U.; Drexler, W.; Kärtner, F. X.; Li, X. D.; Pitris, C.; Ippen, E. P.; Fujimoto, J. G. Spectroscopic optical coherence tomography. Optics letters 2000, 25, 111–113. doi:10.1364/ol.25.000111
13. Colston, B.; Sathyam, U.; Dasilva, L.; Everett, M.; Stroeve, P.; Otis, L. Dental OCT. Optics express 1998, 3, 230–238. doi:10.1364/oe.3.000230
14. Schneider, H.; Park, K. J.; Häfer, M.; Rüger, C.; Schmalz, G.; Krause, F.; Haak, R. Dental applications of optical coherence tomography (OCT) in cariology. Applied Sciences 2017, 7, 472. doi:10.3390/app7050472
15. Huang D. OCT Terminology — Demystified! A pioneer of the technology provides a translation of the latest jargon. 2009.
16. Gentile, E.; Maio, C.; Romano, A.; Laino, L.; Lucchese, A. The potential role of in vivo optical coherence tomography for evaluating oral soft tissue: A systematic review. J Oral Pathol Med 2017, 46, 864–876. https://doi.org/10.1111/jop.12589
17. Zheng, S., Bai, Y., Xu, Z., Liu, P., & Ni, G. Optical coherence tomography for three-dimensional imaging in the biomedical field: a review. Frontiers in Physics 2021, 9, 744346.
18. Shimada, Y.; Yoshiyama, M., Tagami, J.; Sumi, Y. Evaluation of dental caries, tooth crack, and age-related changes in tooth structure using optical coherence tomography. The Japanese dental science review 2020, 56, 109–118. doi:10.1016/j.jdsr.2020.08.001
19. Yaqoob, Z.; Wu, J.; Yang, C. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography: a better OCT imaging strategy. BioTechniques 2005, 39, S6–S13. doi:10.2144/000112090
20. Lee, S.W.; Jeong, H. W.; Kim, B. M.; Ahn, Y. C.; Jung, W.; Chen, Z. Optimization for Axial Resolution, Depth Range, and Sensitivity of Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography at 1.3 µm. The journal of the Korean Physical Society 2009, 55, 2354–2360.
21. Ting D.S.; Cheung G.C.; Lim L.S.; Yeo, I. Y. Comparison of swept source optical coherence tomography and spectral domain optical coherence tomography in polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2015; 43(9), 815-819. doi:10.1111/ceo.12580
22. Erdelyi, R. A.; Duma, V. F.; Sinescu, C.; Dobre, G. M.; Bradu, A.; Podoleanu, A. Dental Diagnosis and Treatment Assessments: Between X-rays Radiography and Optical Coherence Tomography. Materials (Basel, Switzerland) 2020, 13, 4825. doi:10.3390/ma13214825
23. Espinoza, K.; Hayashi, J.; Shimada, Y.; Tagami, J., Sadr, A. Optical Coherence Tomography for Patients with Developmental Disabilities: A Preliminary Study. Sensors (Basel, Switzerland) 2021, 21, 7940. doi:10.3390/s21237940
24. Hamdoon, Z.; Jerjes, W.; McKenzie, G.; Jay, A.; Hopper, C. Optical coherence tomography in the assessment of oral squamous cell carcinoma resection margins. Photodiagnosis and photodynamic therapy 2016, 13, 211–217. doi:10.1016/j.pdpdt.2015.07.170
25. Won, J.; Huang, P. C.; Spillman, D. R., Chaney, E. J.; Adam, R.; Klukowska, M.; Barkalifa, R.; Boppart, S. A. Handheld optical coherence tomography for clinical assessment of dental plaque and gingiva. Journal of biomedical optics 2020, 25, 116011. doi:10.1117/1.JBO.25.11.116011
26. Duma, V. F.; Sinescu, C.; Bradu, A.; Podoleanu, A. Optical Coherence Tomography Investigations and Modeling of the Sintering of Ceramic Crowns. Materials (Basel, Switzerland) 2019, 12, 947. doi:10.3390/ma12060947
27. Schneider, H.; Ahrens, M.; Strumpski, M.; Rüger, C.; Häfer, M.; Hüttmann, G.; Theisen-Kunde, D.; Schulz-Hildebrandt, H.; Haak, R. An Intraoral OCT Probe to Enhanced Detection of Approximal Carious Lesions and Assessment of Restorations. J Clin Med 2020, 9, 3257. doi:10.3390/jcm9103257
28. Walther, J.; Golde, J.; Albrecht, M.; Quirk, B. C.; Scolaro, L.; Kirk, R.W.; Gruda, Y.; Schnabel, C.; Tetschke, F.; Joehrens, K.; Haim, D.; Buckova, M.; Li, J.; McLaughlin, R.A. A Handheld Fiber-Optic Probe to Enable Optical Coherence Tomography of Oral Soft Tissue. IEEE transactions on bio-medical engineering 2022, 69, 2276–2282.
29. Jones, R.S.; Fried, D. Remineralization of enamel caries can decrease optical reflectivity. Journal of dental research 2006, 85, 804–808. doi:10.1177/154405910608500905
30. Sun, C.W.; Ho, Y.C.; Lee, S.Y. Sensing of tooth microleakage based on dental optical coherence tomography. Journal of Sensors 2015; 984627.
31. Segarra, M.S.; Shimada, Y.; Sadr, A.; Sumi, Y.; Tagami, J. Three-Dimensional Analysis of Enamel Crack Behavior Using Optical Coherence Tomography. J Dent Res 2017, 96, 308–314. doi:10.1177/0022034516680156
32. Nakagawa, H;, Sadr, A.; Shimada, Y.; Tagami, J.; Sumi, Y. Validation of swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) for the diagnosis of smooth surface caries in vitro. J Dent 2013, 41, 80–89. doi:10.1016/j.jdent.2012.10.007
33. 33- Luong, M.N.; Shimada, Y.; Araki, K.; Yoshiyama, M.; Tagami, J.; Sadr, A. Diagnosis of Occlusal Caries with Dynamic Slicing of 3D Optical Coherence Tomography Images. Sensors (Basel, Switzerland) 2020, 20, 1659.
34. Park, J.Y.; Chung, J. H.; Lee, J. S.; Kim, H. J.; Choi, S. H.; Jung, U.W. Comparisons of the diagnostic accuracies of optical coherence tomography, micro-computed tomography, and histology in periodontal disease: an ex vivo study. J Periodontal Implant Sci 2017, 47, 30–40. doi:10.5051/jpis.2017.47.1.30
35. Le, N.; Lu, J.; Tang, P.; Chung, K.H.; Subhash, H.; Kilpatrick-Liverman, L.; Wang, R.K. Intraoral optical coherence tomography and angiography combined with autofluorescence for dental assessment. Biomedical optics express 2022, 13, 3629–3646. doi:10.1364/BOE.460575
36. Tsai, M. T.; Chen, Y.; Lee, C. Y.; Huang, B. H.; Trung, N.H.; Lee, Y. J.; Wang, Y.L. Noninvasive structural and microvascular anatomy of oral mucosae using handheld optical coherence tomography. Biomedical optics express 2017, 8, 5001–5012. doi:10.1364/BOE.8.005001
37. Albrecht, M.; Schnabel, C.; Mueller, J.; Golde, J.; Koch, E.; Walther, J. In Vivo Endoscopic Optical Coherence Tomography of the Healthy Human Oral Mucosa: Qualitative and Quantitative Image Analysis. Diagnostics (Basel, Switzerland) 2020, 10, 827.
38. Li, K.; Yang, Z.; Liang, W.; Shang, J.; Liang, Y.; Wan, S. Low-cost, ultracompact handheld optical coherence tomography probe for in vivo oral maxillofacial tissue imaging. Journal of biomedical optics 2020, 25, 1–13. doi:10.1117/1.JBO.25.4.046003
39. Müller S. Oral lichenoid lesions: distinguishing the benign from the deadly. Mod Pathol. 2017, 30, S54-S67. doi:10.1038/modpathol.2016.121
40. Won, J.; Huang, P.C.; Spillman, D.R.; Chaney, E. J.; Adam, R.; Klukowska, M.; Barkalifa, R.; Boppart, S.A. Handheld optical coherence tomography for clinical assessment of dental plaque and gingiva. Journal of biomedical optics 2020, 25, 116011. doi:10.1117/1.JBO.25.11.116011
41. Putra, R.H.; Yoda, N.; Astuti, E. R.; Sasaki, K. Potential Imaging Capability of Optical Coherence Tomography as Dental Optical Probe: A Mini-Review. Applied Sciences 2021, 11, 11025. doi:10.3390/app112211025
42. Schneider, H., Park, K. J., Häfer, M., Rüger, C., Schmalz, G., Krause, F., ... & Haak, R. Dental applications of optical coherence tomography (OCT) in cariology. Applied Sciences 2017, 7, 472