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Sharmila Shamugam
Nur Syazwani Taridi
Adyani Md Redzuan


Atrial fibrillation, Digoxin, Pharmacokinetics


Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common cardiac arrhythmia associated with an increased risk of stroke and heart failure. Digoxin, a cardiac glycoside, has been a cornerstone in the management of AF for decades. This literature review explores the utilization of digoxin in atrial fibrillation, with a specific focus on its pharmacokinetic properties. Additionally, it discusses the challenges and concerns associated with digoxin's pharmacokinetics, including its narrow therapeutic window and the impact of patient-specific factors such as age, renal function, and drug interactions. This review highlights the importance of precise dosing and therapeutic drug monitoring to ensure both safety and efficacy in AF patients treated with digoxin. It also underscores the need for further research and clinical guidelines to optimize digoxin's use in the contemporary management of atrial fibrillation.

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