AMINOGLYCOSIDE INDUCED KIDNEY INJURY AND ITS PHARMACOLOGICAL TREATMENT – OVERVIEW

Main Article Content

Vikas Kumar Pandey
Shivani
Manveen Kaur
Anita Patel

Keywords

Aminoglycoside, Treatment, kidney injury, Drugs, Patients, GFR

Abstract

The semi-synthetic or natural antibiotics known as aminoglycosides are produced by actinomycetes. They were some of the first antibiotics to be created for clinical use, and some of them have been approved for use in patients. Strong antibiotics like aminoglycosides work to stop the synthesis of new proteins, which is the main goal of all antibiotics. Aminoglycosides are used in the treatment of a wide range of illnesses, including bone infections, external burns, cystic fibrosis, diarrhoea, endocarditis, febrile neutropenia, fish tapeworm infections, hepatic encephalopathy, intra-abdominal infections, joint infections, kidney infections, meningitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, peritonitis, skin or soft tissue infections, and urinary tract infections. However, reduced renal function and hearing loss are the most frequent side effects of aminoglycosides. Aminoglycosides must be supplied intravenously because oral administration results in inadequate absorption. When other antibiotics are either ineffective or inappropriate, aminoglycosides are frequently utilised.  The following aminoglycoside resistance mechanisms exist: (a) deactivating aminoglycosides through N-acetylation, adenylylation, or O-phosphorylation; (b) lowering the intracellular concentration of aminoglycosides through changes to the flexibility of the outer membrane; (c) inhibiting active efflux; and (d) drug trapping; and (e) mutating the 30S ribosomal subunit target. These are all examples of resistance mechanisms. As antibiotic resistance grows around the world, aminoglycosides are becoming more crucial in medical therapy. In this essay, I will examine which aminoglycoside antibiotic damages kidney cells most severely and examine the pharmacological therapy paradigm that is currently in use. Everything revolves around improving patient safety and results.

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