ASSESSING CRIMINOGENIC THINKING, CRIMINAL BEHAVIOR AND MENTAL HEALTH OF JUSTICE-INVOLVED INDIVIDUALS

Main Article Content

Kennedy O. Ololo
Anthony Chukwuma Nwali
Okolie Charles Nkem
Elizabeth Ola Owonibi
Sani Gambo Yusuf
Benedette Nneka Okezie
Linus Adama

Keywords

criminal behavior, criminogenic thinking, mental health, prisoners, serious mental illness

Abstract

Criminogenic thinking refers to the cognitive processes that support criminal behavior. There have been growing interest towards examining the association of mental health with individuals’ involvement in the criminal justice system to gain an understanding of how mental health problems significantly affect individuals’ thinking and behavior that could lead to criminal conducts. The purpose of this paper was to explore the connection between criminogenic thinking, criminal behavior, and mental health of justice-involved individuals. A narrative literature review procedure was used as the study methodology to provide an overview of the correlation between criminogenic thinking, criminal behavior, and mental health of this group. According to the results from literature analysis, criminogenic thinking is a factor that contributes to criminal behavior and there is a strong correlation between the two constructs. Specifically, criminogenic thinking and criminogenic risk factors have a greater correlation with criminal behavior than mental illness based on the literature analysis. It is crucial to understand, however, that mental health problems can influence the way that an individual thinks and behaves when it comes to crime. Additionally, criminogenic risk factors can be addressed through proactive community initiatives and evidence-based interventions that focus on (a) reducing these risk factors and criminal behavior, and (b) promoting positive mental health outcomes. Further research is required so as to gain a deeper understanding of the complex association among criminal behavior, criminogenic thinking, and mental health. A community-based alternative may be more useful for prisoners who have serious mental illness (SMI) than traditional incarceration. Therefore, the upscaling of evidence-based and cost-effective community-driven interventions and policies aimed at minimizing recidivism and enhancing the well-being of this population with SMI is needed.

Abstract 107 | pdf Downloads 62

References

1. Abramson, M.F. (1972). The criminalization of mentally disordered behavior: possible side-effect of a new mental health law. Psychiatric Services, 23(4), 101-105.
https://doi.org/10.1176/ps.23.4.101
2. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (2012). Interventions for adults with serious mental illness who are involved with the criminal justice system. Research Protocol. https://effectivehealthcare.ahrq.gov/sites/default/files/pdf/mental-illness-adults-prisons_research-protocol.pdf
3. Bartholomew. N.R., Morgan, R.D., Mitchell, S.M. & Van Horn, S.A. (2018). Criminal thinking, psychiatric symptoms, and recovery attitudes among community mental health patients: An examination of program placement. Criminal Justice and Behavior,45(2), 195-213. http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/usjusticematls/39
4. Belfrom, N.M. (2021). Criminal Thinking, Age, Psychological Well-Being, and Recidivism among Recently Released Female Violent Offenders. Doctoral dissertation, Walden University.https://scholarworks.waldenu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=11905&context=dissertations
5. Bolaños, A.D., Mitchell, S.M., Morgan, R.D., & Grabowski, K.E. (2020). A comparison of criminogenic risk factors and psychiatric symptomatology between psychiatric inpatients with and without criminal justice involvement. Law & Human Behavior, 44(4), 336-346.
https://doi.org/10.1037/lhb0000391
6. Bonfine, N., Wilson, A.B. & Munetz, M.R. (2020). Meeting the needs of justice-involved people with serious mental illness within community behavioral health systems. Psychiatric Services, 71(4), 355-63. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ps.201900453
7. DeMatteo, D., LaDuke, C., Locklair, B.R. & Heilbrun, K. (2013) Community-based alternatives for justice-involved individuals with severe mental illness: Diversion, problem-solving courts, and reentry. Journal of Criminal Justice, 41(2), 64-71.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2012.09.002
8. Development Services Group. (2017). Intersection Between Mental Health and the Juvenile Justice System. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.
9. Gross, N.R. (2014). Criminal thinking in a community mental health sample: Effects on treatment engagement, psychiatric recovery, and criminality. Doctoral dissertation, Texas Tech University,
10. Heilbrun, K., DeMatteo, D., Yasuhara, K., Brooks-Holliday, S., Shah, S., King, C., Dicarlo, A.B., Hamilton, D., & Laduke, C. (2012). Community-based alternatives for justice-involved individuals with severe mental illness: Review of the relevant research. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 39(4), 351-419. https://doi.org/10.1177/0093854811432421
11. Howell, B.A., Wang, E.A., & Winkelman, T.N. (2019). Mental health treatment among individuals involved in the criminal justice system after implementation of the Affordable Care Act. Psychiatric Services, 70(9), 765-71. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ps.201800559
12. Kamin, D., Weisman, R.L. & Lamberti, J.S. (2022). Promoting mental health and criminal justice collaboration through system-level partnerships. Frontiers in Psychiatry. article 61. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2022.805649
13. Kennedy-Hendricks, A., Huskamp, H.A., Rutkow, L., & Barry, C.L. (2016). Improving access to care and reducing involvement in the criminal justice system for people with mental illness. Health Affairs, 35(6), 1076-1083. https://doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.2016.0006
14. Lamb, H.R. & Weinberger, L.E. (2013). Some perspectives on criminalization. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law Online, 41(2), 287-93.
https://jaapl.org/content/41/2/287
15. Maryville University (2023). Addressing Mental Health and the Criminal Justice System. Maryville University. https://online.maryville.edu/blog/mental-health-and-criminal- justice/
16. Mental Health America (2023). Mental Health and Criminal Justice Issues. MHA. https://www.mhanational.org/issues/mental-health-and-criminal-justice-issues
17. Morabito, M.S. (2008). The criminalization hypothesis: an historical analysis. Research That Matters. https://sswr.confex.com/sswr/2008/techprogram/P8310.HTM/
18. Morgan, R.D., Scanlon, F. & Van Horn, S.A. (2020) Criminogenic risk and mental health: A complicated relationship. CNS Spectrums, 25(2), 237-44.
https://doi.org/10.1017/S109285291900141X
19. Pittaro, M. (2020). Reducing crime by addressing criminogenic risk factors: Responding through proactive as opposed to reactive community initiatives. Psychology Today. https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/the-crime-and-justice-doctor/202006/reducing-crime-addressing-criminogenic-risk-factors
20. Robertson, A.G., Easter, M.M., Lin, H., Frisman, L.K., Swanson, J.W. & Swartz, M.S. (2018). Medication-assisted treatment for alcohol-dependent adults with serious mental illness and criminal justice involvement: Effects on treatment utilization and outcomes. American Journal of Psychiatry, 175(7), 665-673. https://doi.org/ 10.1176/appi.ajp.2018.17060688.
21. Santos, M. (2012). Criminogenic risk factors. Earning Freedom, DBA Prison Professors. https://prisonprofessors.com/criminogenic-risk-factors/
22. Stringer, H. (2019). Improving mental health for inmates. Monitor on Psychology, 50(3), 46. https://www.apa.org/monitor/2019/03/mental-heath-inmates
23. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (2019). Medication-assisted treatment (MAT) in the criminal justice system: Brief guidance to the States. MAT Brief, 1-8. https://store.samhsa.gov/sites/default/files/d7/priv/pep19-matbriefcjs_0.pdf
24. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2019). Principles of community-based behavioral health services for justice-involved individuals: A research-based guide. HHS Publication No. SMA19-5097. Rockville, MD: Office of Policy, Planning, and Innovation. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.
https://store.samhsa.gov/sites/default/files/d7/priv/sma19-5097.pdf
25. Tafrate, R.C. & Mitchell, D. (2022). Criminogenic thinking among justice-involved persons: Practice guidelines for probation staff. Federation Probation, 86(1), 4-10.
https://www.uscourts.gov/sites/default/files/86_1_1_0.pdf
26. Timmer, A. & Nowotny, K.M. (2021) Mental illness and mental health care treatment among people with criminal justice involvement in the United States. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 32(1), 397-422. https://doi.org/10.1353/hpu.2021.0031
27. Treatment Advocacy Center (2023). Understand Criminal Justice Involvement. https://www.treatmentadvocacycenter.org/component/content/article/183-in-a-crisis/2614-understand-criminal-justice-involvement/
28. Van Beek, G., De Vogel, V. & Van de Mheen, D. (2021) The relationship between debt and crime: A systematic and scoping review. European Journal of Probation, 13(1), 41-71. https://doi.org/10.1177/2066220320964896
29. Van Deinse, T.B., Cuddeback, G.S., Wilson, A.B., Edwards, D. Jr. & Lambert, M. (2021).
30. Variation in criminogenic risks by mental health symptom severity: Implications for mental health services and research. Psychiatry Quarterly, 92(1), 73-84.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11126-020-09782-x
31. Westbery. B. (2019) Criminogenic risk and treatment planning. Addiction Technology Transfer Center Network.
https://attcnetwork.org/centers/new-england-attc/product/criminogenic-risk-and-treatment-planning