PHYTOCHEMICAL PROFILE, ANTIMICROBIAL,ANTIOXIDANT, ANTHELMINTIC AND ANTIPROLIFERATIVE ACTIVITIES OF ASPLENIUM TRICHOMANES L. OF MALAM JABBA, SWAT VALLEY KP, PAKISTAN

Main Article Content

Taha Arooj
Zaheer-Ud-Din Khan
Muhammad Akhtar
Muhammad Ali Raza
Sohaib Muhammad
Hasnat Shabbir
Sidra Farid

Keywords

Asplenium trichomanes L, Antibacterial, Antioxidant, Anticancer, Anthelmintic

Abstract

In this study the crude extracts of Asplenium trichomanes L. collected from Malam Jabba, Swat valley KP, Pakistan obtained in non-polar (n-Hexane, chloroform) to polar (ethanol and distilled water) solvents. These crude extracts were evaluated for their phytochemical composition, antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant, anthelmintic, and anticancer effects. Qualitative analysis of these crude extracts showed presence of saponins, cardiac glycosides, tannins, reducing sugars, flavonoids, alkaloids, anthraquinones, and terpenoids in the  rhizome, fronds, and sori extracts of this fern. Using the well diffusion method, the antifungal activity was evaluated against Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae and the antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in triplicates. Zone of inhibition was measured in (mm) and was compared to standard discs. Chloroform extract showed notable inhibition, particularly in fronds that showed a zone of inhibition measuring 16.17±0.52 mm against Bacillus subtilis as opposed to the typical disc Gentamycin measuring 18±0.11 mm. Antioxidant activity was carried out to assess ABTS radical scavenging, metal chelating, DPPH assay, Total phenolic content and Total Flavonoid content. Results were compared with standard curve. For anthelmintic activity intestinal parasite of  sheep and goat (Haemonchus contortus) which resides in fouth part of stomach (abomasum) and intestine was selected. Ethanolic extracts were evaluated for anthelmintic activity dueto its remarkable response in antimicrobial activity. Ethanol extracts of fronds, rhizome and sori were prepared in concentration of 12.5 mg/ml, 25 mg/ml, 50 mg/ml, 100 mg/ml and 200 mg/ml. 2 ml of each concentration was poured on ten adult Haemonchus contortus worms in a petriplate. Experiment was carried out in triplicates. Paralysis and death time of worms was noted every hour for about 7 hours. Results were compared with albendazole taken as standard. For anticancerous activity, crude extracts were screened for their cytotoxicity on aforementioned cell lines using MTT assay. The obtained result demonstrated selective anticancerous activity. It has been determined that A. trichomanes L. has a long ethnopharmacological history and is a potent medicinal herb. 

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