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Aditya Tripathi
Swati Tomar
Arun K. Sharma


Compact Fluorescent Light (CFL), Light Emitting Diodes (LED), Computer Vision Syndrome (CVS), Digital Eye Strain/ Syndrome (DES), High Energy Visible light (HEVL), Nomophobia, and Blue light protective lenses.



Overuse of smartphones has shown frequent ocular problems, which exponentially increased during previous years due to the adaptation of online classes, meetings, assignments, videos, free time social media addiction, etc. Nowadays plenty of blue-rich light is present in all technological display gadgets. Blue Violet light (380 to 490 nm) is mentioned to as "near Ultra Violet spectrum" or HEV (high energy visible) light due to the high photon energy- which makes it skilled to induce photochemical damage. Constant, continuous & excessive usage of devices can create harmful effects on the Eye and general health. They contribute to the development of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and could lead to degenerative changes in human eyes.

 Material & method- This cross-sectional time-framed study was conducted from January 2019 to January 2020 at the Department of Optometry, Uttar Pradesh University of Medical Sciences, Saifai, Etawah, Uttar Pradesh. Subjects were selected based on convenience sampling from the campus of the University (students, professionals, staff, and volunteer OPD patients). The complete eye examination was done with Optometric instruments.

Results- Of all 600 participants, 571 completed all procedures. Of 571, 97.75% used smartphones of different companies and 84.64% were smartphone addictive. 65.16% of participants were using smartphones for watching videos and surfing on social media most of the time. Of all participants, 65.7% suffered headaches frequently, 33.3% had ocular and peri-ocular pain and 45.32% continuously felt ocular dryness. Ocular fatigue and convergence insufficiency were common in nearly 63% of participants. In all participants, DES symptoms significantly increase as the hours of digital screening increase. Those participants had very less and incomplete blinks; they have the most severe ocular problems with dryness. The strong correlation between very less incomplete blink and exposure dryness is very significant. Along with the ocular problems, other ergonomic problems raised exponentially. The data shows ocular symptoms are significantly less in spectacle users (14.4±2.9) in comparison to non-spectacle users (18.29±6.49). And blue block lens users (11.14±3.175) are significantly less symptomatic in comparison to the non-spectacle users (18.29±6.49) (p< 0.05).

Conclusion- This study's result reveals that smartphone-addicted participants (whoever uses a smartphone for a long time continuously- Constant, continuous & excessive use) got more frequent ocular symptoms like dryness, fatigue and headache. There is a significant difference between with and without the spectacle. Using spectacle reduces the symptoms significantly. But there is a significant difference in ocular symptoms and conjunctival injection between anti-reflective and blue light-blocking lenses. Blue protective lenses reduced few symptoms more significantly than ARC lenses.

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