Main Article Content

Mr J Dorasamy
Prof R Bhagwan


Occupational wellness, families, coping, COVID-19, employment


The worldwide outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic significantly affected various dimensions of human wellness. More so, the various protocols implemented to mitigate the spread of the pandemic had significant effects on the occupational wellness dimension. This study explored the occupational wellness challenges experienced by some families in Melbourne, Australia, during the COVID-19 pandemic and the strategies they used as they transitioned through the pandemic. The study framed three possible inductive themes aligned to the impact of COVID-19 on specific aspects of occupational wellness, pathways to the management of occupational wellness during COVID-19, and recommended future changes to occupational wellness by the sampled families in Melbourne, Australia. The study findings indicated that COVID-19 had both positive and negative effects on the occupational wellness of the families. The strategies of the families are worthy for consideration, for future approaches to deal with any pandemic. It is expected that the proper adoption of the proposed strategies to cope with occupational wellness will significantly contribute toward occupational wellness for individuals and families facing occupational wellness challenges, especially during pandemics.

Abstract 88 | pdf Downloads 74


1. Ali-Knight, J. and Ensor, J. 2017. Salute to the sun: an exploration of UK Yoga tourist profiles. Tourism Recreation Research, 42(4): 484-497.
2. Ahorsu, D. K., Lin, C. Y., Imani, V., Saffari, M., Griffiths, M. D. and Pakpour, A. H. 2022. The Fear of COVID-19 Scale: Development and Initial Validation. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 20: 1537-1545.
3. Arora, P. and Suri, D. 2020. Rede¬fining, relooking, redesigning, and reincorporating HRD in the post Covid 19 context and thereafter. Human Resource Development International, 5(2): 1-14.
4. Australian Bureau of Statistics. 2020. Household impacts of COVID-19 survey, 14-17 Apr 2020 (Cat. No. 4940.0). Available:
https://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs%40.nsf/mediareleasesbyCatalogue/DB259787916733E4CA25855B0003B21C?OpenDocument (Accessed 13 January 2022).
5. Australian Government Department of Health. 2020a. Coronavirus (COVID-19) current situation and case numbers. Australian Government Department of Health. Available: https://www.health.gov.au/news/health-alerts/novelcoronavirus-2019-ncov-health-alert/coronavirus-covid-19-current-situation-and-case-numbersMay1,2020 (Accessed 31 December 2021).
6. Babbie, E. and Mouton, J. 2001. The practice of social science research. Belmont, CA Wadsworth: Oxford University Press.
7. Binghamton University. 2021. Occupational Wellness During COVID-19 - Health Promotion and Prevention Services. Available:
https://www.binghamton.edu/hpps/covid19-resources/covid-19-general-health/occupationalwellness.html (Accessed 31 August 2021).
8. Bouziri, H., Smith, D. R., Descatha, A., Dab, W. and Jean, K. 2020. Working from home in the time of COVID-19: how to best preserve occupational health? Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 77(7): 509-510.
9. Como, R., Hambley, L. and Domene, J. 2021. An Exploration of Work-Life Wellness and Remote Work During and Beyond COVID-19. Canadian Journal of Career Development, 20(1): 46-56.
10. Dokov, H., Milkova, K. and Stamenkov, I. 2020. Spatial discourses of the COVID-19 multidimensional impacts: The case of Bulgaria. WORKING PAPER. WP/SU/FGG/20-08. August 2020. Available: (PDF) Spatial discourses of the COVID-19 multidimensional impacts: The case of Bulgaria (researchgate.net) (Accessed 16 April 2022).
11. Dymecka, J., Gerymski, R., Machnik-Czerwik, A., Derbis, R. and Bidzan, M. 2021. Fear of COVID-19 and life satisfaction: The role of the health-related hardiness and sense of coherence. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 12: 1-9.
12. Ellis, W. E., Dumas, T. M. and Forbes, L. M. 2020. Physically isolated but socially connected: Psychological adjustment and stress among adolescents during the initial COVID-19 crisis. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 52(3): 177-187
13. Etheridge, B. and Spanting, L. 2020. The Gender Gap in Mental Well-Being during the COVID-19 Outbreak: Evidence from the UK. Available:
https://www.iser.essex.ac.uk/research/publications/working-papers/iser/2020-08.pdf (Accessed 9 April 2022).
14. Feinberg, M. E., Gedaly, L., Mogle, J. A., Hostetler, M. L., Cifelli J. A., Tornello, S. L., Lee, J. K. and Jones, D. E. 2021. Building long-term family resilience through universal prevention: 10-year parent and child outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic. Family Process, 10(9): 1-15.
15. Fisher, J., Languilaire, J. C., Lawthom, R., Nieuwenhuis, R., Petts, R. J., Runswick-Cole, K. and Yerkes, M. A. 2020. Community, work, and family in times of COVID-19. Community Work. Family, 23: 247-252.
16. Global Victoria. 2021. Victoria's capabilities - World-class infrastructure. Available: https://global.vic.gov.au/victorias-capabilities/why-melbourneWorld-class infrastructure - Global Victoria (Accessed 15 March 2022).
17. Goodman, F. R., Disabato, D. J., Kashdan, T. B. and Kauffman, S. B. 2018. Measuring well-being: A comparison of subjective well-being and PERMA. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 13(4): 321-332.
18. Gambhir, M. K. 2020. “Lock¬down: Is Work-Life Balance Impossible while Working from Home?” The Quint, 21 May. Available: https://www.thequint.com/ voices/opinion/work-from-home-work-life-balance-chal¬lenges-pressures-domestic-chores-idea of-leisure (Accessed 14 March 2022).
19. Ingusci, E., Signore, F., Giancaspro, M. L., Manuti, A., Molino, M., Russo, V., Zito, M. and Cortese, C. G. 2021. Workload, techno overload, and behavioral stress during COVID-19 emergency: the role of job crafting in remote workers. Frontiers in Psychology, 12: 655148.
20. Kourtit, K., Nijkamp, P. and Östh, J. 2021. My home is my castle assessment of city love in Sweden. International Journal of Information Management, 58: 102-113.
21. Kuye, J., Akinyemi, P. A., Olanrewaju, O., Emmanuel, O. N. and Olusola, F. 2022. Occupational Wellness and its Determinants among Cocoa Farmers in South-West Nigeria. Texila International Journal of Public Health: 1-9.
22. Lee, S. J. and Ward, K. P. 2020. Research brief: stress and parenting during the coronavirus pandemic. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Parenting in Context Research Lab. Available: https://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl (Accessed 14 December 2021).
23. Lefebvre, L. G. and Kaufmann, I. M. 2017. The identification and management of substance use disorders in anesthesiologists. Canadian Journal of Anesthesia /Journal canadien d'anesthésie, 64(2): 211-218.
24. Low, N. and Mounts, N. S. 2022. Economic stress, parenting, and adolescents’ adjustment during the COVID-19 pandemic. Family Relations, 71: 90-107.
25. Lunau, T., Bambra, C., Eikemo, T., Van der Wel, K. and Dragano, N. 2014. A balancing act? Work-life balance, health and well-being in European wel¬fare states. European Journal of Public Health, 24(3): 422-427.
26. Majumdar, P., Biswas, A. and Sahu, S. 2020. COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown: cause of sleep disruption, depression, somatic pain, and increased screen exposure of office workers and students of India. Chronobiology International, 37(8): 1191-1200.
27. McGinty, E. E., Presskreischer, R., Han, H. and Barry, C. L. 2020. Psychological distress and loneliness reported by US adults in 2018 and April 2020. Jama, 324(1): 93-94.
28. Messenger, J., Vargas Llave, O., Gschwind, L., Boehmer, S., Vermeylen, G. and Wilkens, M. 2017. Working anytime, anywhere: The effects on the world of work.
29. Mock, J. 2020. Psychological trauma is the next crisis for coronavirus health workers. Available: https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/psychological-trauma-is-the-next-crisis-for-coronavirus-health-workers1/ (Accessed 12 August 2021).
30. October, K. R., Petersen, L. R., Adebiyi, B., Rich, E. and Roman, N. V. 2022. COVID-19 Daily Realities for Families: A South African Sample. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 5: 1-18.
31. OECD. 2020. OECD Economic Outlook, June 2020 - Preliminary version. Available: https:// doi.org/10.1787/0d1d1e2e-en (Accessed 25 August 2021).
32. OECD. 2021. An assessment of the impact of COVID-19 on job and skills demand using online job vacancy data. Available: https://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/policy-responses/an-assessment-of-the-impact-of-covid-19-on-job-and-skills-demand-using-online-job-vacancy-data-20fff09e/ (Accessed 19 August 2022).
33. Oliver, M. D. Baldwin, D. R. and Datta, S. 2019. Health to Wellness: A Review of Wellness Models and Transitioning Back to Health. International Journal of Health, Wellness & Society, 9(1). Available: https://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl. (Accessed 5 July 2021).
34. Otuonye, A. 2014. Benefits and Best Practices of Worksite Wellness Programs. Unpublished master’s thesis). Concordia University.
35. Power, T., Wilson, D., Best, O., Brockie, T., Bourque Bearskin, L., Millender, E. and Lowe, J. 2020. COVID‐19 and Indigenous Peoples: An imperative for action. Journal of Nursing, 15(16): 2737-2741.
36. Qi, Y., Liang, T. and Ye, H. 2020. Occupational status, working conditions, and health: evidence from the 2012 China Labor Force Dynamics Survey. The Journal of Chinese Sociology, 7(1): 1-23.
37. Queral-Basse, A. 2020. Responding to Covid 19: Building social, economic and environmental resilience with the European Green Deal. Available: https://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/policy-responses/youth-and-covid-19-response-recovery-and-resilience-c40e61c6 (Accessed 15 March.2022).
38. Rajkumar, R. P. 2020. COVID-19 and mental health: A review of the existing literature. Asian Journal of Psychiatry, 52: 35-46.
39. Saldaña, J. 2015. The coding manual for qualitative researchers. London: SAGE Publications Limited.
40. Salameh, P., Hajj, A., Badro, D. A., Abou Selwan, C., Aoun, A. and Sacre, H. 2020. Mental Health Outcomes of the COVID-19 Pandemic and a Collapsing Economy: Perspectives from a Developing Country. Psychiatry Research, 294: 113-125.
41. SHRM Covid-19 Research. 2020. Navigating COVID-19 – Impact of the pandemic on mental health. Available:
https://www.discovery.co.za/corporate/covid-19-pandemic-focus-on-employee-wellness (Accessed 23 January2021).
42. Singh, S., Duggal, T., Sujatha, R., Yadav, A. and Rathore, V. S. 2020. Impact of Pandemic on Mental Health and Wellness of Youth. International Journal of Management (IJM), 11(6). Available at: https://iaeme.com/MasterAdmin/Journal_uploads/IJM/VOLUME_11_ISSUE_6/IJM_11_06_154.pdf (Accessed 2 September 2021).
43. Sivris, K. C. and Leka, S. 2015. Examples of holistic good practices in promoting and protecting mental health in the workplace: current and future challenges. Safety and Health at Work, 6(4): 295-304.
44. Spencer, S. 2011. Visual research methods in the social sciences: Awakening visions. London: Routledge.
45. Standen, P., Daniels, K. and Lamond, D. 1999. The home as a workplace: Work–family interaction and psychological well-being in telework. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 4(4): 368.
46. Suitor, J. J., Gilligan, M., Pillemer, K., Fingerman, K. L., Kim, K., Silverstein, M. and Bengtson, V. L. 2017. Applying within-family differences approaches to enhance understanding of the complexity of intergenerational relations. Journals of Gerontology, Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 5(3): 16-27.
47. Swarbrick, P and Yudof, J. 2015. Wellness In Eight Dimensions. Available: https://www.center4healthandsdc.org/uploads/7/1/1/4/71142589/wellness_in_8_dimensions_booklet_with_daily_plan.pdf (Accessed 27 November 2021).
48. The Important Site (TIS). 2022. Why families are important. Available:
https://theimportantsite.com/10-reasons-family-is-important/ (Accessed 15 February 2022).
49. Taherdoost, H. 2016. Sampling Methods in Research Methodology; How to Choose a Sampling Technique for Research. Available: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3205035 (Accessed 27 January 2021).
50. Tavares, A. I. 2017. Telework and health effects review. International Journal of Healthcare, 3(2): 30-36.
51. Thomas, P. A., Liu, H. and Umberson, D. 2017. Family relationships and well-being. Innovation in aging, 1(3): igx025.
52. Thomason, B. and Williams, H. 2020. What will work-life balance look like after the pandemic. Harvard Business Review, 2020: 1-4.
53. Tušl, M., Brauchli, R., Kerksieck, P. and Bauer, G. F. 2021. Impact of the COVID-19 crisis on work and private life, mental well-being and self-rated health in German and Swiss employees: A cross-sectional online survey. BMC Public Health, 21(1): 1-15.
54. Umberson, D., Thomeer, M. B., Kroeger, R. A., Lodge, A. C. and Xu, M. 2015. Challenges and opportunities for research on same sex relationships. Journal of Marriage and Family, 77: 96-111.
55. UN 2020a. Policy Brief: The Impact of COVID-19 on Children. Available:
56. https://gdc.unicef.org/resource/uns-policy-brief-impact-covid-19-children
57. (Accessed 27 August 2021).
58. Van Yperen, N. W., Rietzschel, E. F. and De Jonge, K. M. 2014. Blended working: For whom it may (not) work. PloS one, 9(7): e102921.
59. Waite, P. and Creswell, C. 2020. The Co-Space Study Report 01: Findings from the first 1500 participants on parent/carer stress and child activity. Available:
https://emergingminds.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/Co-SPACE-initial-report-first-1500-participants-06-04-20.pdf (Accessed 28 November2021).
60. Welsh Government. 2020. Leading Wales out of the coronavirus pandemic: A framework for recovery. Available: https://gov.wales/leading-wales-out-coronavirus-pandemic (Accessed 1 August 2021).
61. WHO. 2020. Statement – Older people are at highest risk from COVID-19, but all must act to prevent community spread. Available: WHO/Europe | Home (Accessed 1 May 2021).
62. Xiao, Y., Becerik-Gerber, B., Lucas, G. and Roll, S. C. 2021. Impacts of working from home during COVID-19 pandemic on physical and mental well-being of office workstation users. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 63(3): 181.