Balanites aegyptica leave extracts inhibited the growth of some human bacterial pathogens: In vitro study and GCMS analysis

Main Article Content

Ayman S. H. Taher-Bufarwa
Salwa I. Abdulla-Eltawaty
Sanad S. Elhddad
Salha F. Ben-Gweirif


Balanites aegyptica, Multi-drug resistant bacteria, GC-MS.


For searching for a solution to eliminate pathogens and get out of the circle of their increasing resistance to common antibiotics. This study tested different genera and species of human pathogenic bacteria for their sensitivity towards the extract of leaves of Balanites aegyptica. Water, methanol, and chloroform were used as solvents for extraction. Standard methods were used for carrying out the susceptibility tests. Varied results were shown in this study, and promising activity has been shown against three of the most worldwide problematic bacterial pathogens; Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa, especially with the minimum inhibitory concentrations shown of 3.125 mg, 25 mg, and 100 mg, respectively. This study introduces the Balanites aegyptica leaves as a good resource for new promising antibacterial agents.

Abstract 164 | pdf Downloads 104


1. Abdalkrim, H., Eltawaty, S. A., Elhddad, S. S., Altawaty, T., Mohamed, A., Ali, K., ... & Farag, A. (2023). Combinatorial Combination Synergism Of Augmentin And Diclofenac Dosage Forms Against Community And Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus. Journal of Pharmaceutical Negative Results, 2782-2792.
2. Abdallah, Emad M., Anis Ben Hsouna, and Khalifa S. Al-Khalifa.(2012). "Antimicrobial, antioxidant and phytochemical investigation of Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Del. edible fruit from Sudan." African Journal of Biotechnology 11.52: 11535-11542.
3. Ahmed, M. A., & Alshareef, M. A. (2018). Extraction and physicochemical properties of Balanites aegyptiaca (Heglig) seed oil grown in Libya. Int J Agric Res Rev, 6, 674-679.
4. Al-Thobaiti, S. A., & Abu Zeid, I. M. (2018). Medicinal properties of desert date plants (Balanites aegyptiaca)-an overview. Global Journal of Pharmacology, 12(1), 01-12.
5. Andrews J. M. (2006). Determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations. Department of Microbiology, City Hospital NHS Trust, Birmingham B18 7QH.Department of Microbiology, City Hospital NHS Trust, Birmingham B18 7QH. Tel: 0121 507 5693; FAX: 0121 551 7763; Email: [email protected].
6. Beentje, H., Adamson, J., & Bhanderi, D. (1994). Kenya trees, shrubs, and lianas. National Museums of Kenya.
7. Chothani, D. L., & Vaghasiya, H. U. (2011). A review on Balanites aegyptiaca Del (desert date): phytochemical constituents, traditional uses, and pharmacological activity. Pharmacognosy reviews, 5(9), 55.
8. Gopi, A., Stephy, P. S., Jacob, K. K., & Kumar, C. (2019). In vitro antibacterial screening of fatty acid from Aegiceras corniculatum against human pathogens. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 8(1), 448-451.
9. Ibrahim, E. E. (2016). Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of Balanites aegyptiaca and Phyllanthus reticulates Leaves. Pharmacie Globale, 7(1), 1.
10. Jahan, N., Khatoon, R., Shahzad, A., & Shahid, M. (2013). Antimicrobial activity of medicinal plant Balanites aegyptiaca Del. and its in vitro raised calli against resistant organisms especially those harbouring bla genes. J Med Plants Res, 7, 1692-8.
11. Jain, D., Uniyal, N., Mitra, D., & Janmeda, P. (2020). Traditional resources and use of aromatic and ethnomedicinal plants in Uttarakhand: compliment of nature. International Journal of Herbal Medicine, 8(5), 88-95.
12. Kitahara, T., Koyama, N., Matsuda, J., Aoyama, Y., Hirakata, Y., Kamihira, S., ... & Sasaki, H. (2004). Antimicrobial activity of saturated fatty acids and fatty amines against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 27(9), 1321-1326.
13. Kulawe, D., Ahidjo, N., & Hena, J. S. (2019). The Ethanolic Extracts of the Root, Stem and Leaves of Balanites aegyptiaca against Selected Microbes.
14. Magaldi, S., Mata-Essayag, S., De Capriles, C. H., Pérez, C., Colella, M. T., Olaizola, C., & Ontiveros, Y. (2004). Well diffusion for antifungal susceptibility testing. International journal of infectious diseases, 8(1), 39-45.
15. Manoharachary, C., & Nagaraju, D. (2016). Medicinal plants for human health and welfare. Annals of phytomedicine, 5(1), 24-34.
16. Murthy, H. N., Yadav, G. G., Dewir, Y. H., & Ibrahim, A. (2020). Phytochemicals and biological activity of desert date (Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Delile). Plants, 10(1), 32.
17. Oliver, B. (1960). Medicinal plants in Nigeria. Nigerian College of arts. Science and Technology, 21(37), 52-53.
18. Pereira, R. V., Foditsch, C., Siler, J. D., Dulièpre, S. C., Altier, C., Garzon, A., & Warnick, L. D. (2020). Genotypic antimicrobial resistance characterization of E. coli from dairy calves at high risk of respiratory disease administered enrofloxacin or tulathromycin. Scientific reports, 10(1), 1-11.
19. Shakya, A. K. (2016). Medicinal plants: Future source of new drugs. International journal of herbal medicine, 4(4), 59-64.
20. Singh, A. P., Das, S., Mazumder, A., Kumar, M., & Gautam, N. (2017). A prespective review on a novel plant Balanites aegyptiaca (linn.). J. Pharm. Biol. Sci, 5(6), 273-277.
21. Suliman, M. B., Awatif, A. M., & Azhari, H. N. (2017). Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of Sudanese Balanites Aegyptiaca del kernel oil. Chem Adv Mater, 2, 14-21.
22. Tula, M. Y., Danchal, T. B., Iruolaje, F. O., & Onyeje, G. A. (2014). Studies on phytochemical constituents and antibacterial potentials of extracts of Balanites aegyptiaca (Del.) parts on antibiotic resistant bacterial isolates. European Journal of Medicinal Plants, 4(7), 854.
23. Wang, X., & Li, T. (2023). Current problems with the antibiotic-resistant bacteria and multiresistance bacteria. Degradation of Antibiotics and Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria from Various Sources, 89-115.
24. Yadav, J. P., and Manju Panghal. (2010). "Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Del.(Hingot): A review of its traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological properties." International Journal of Green Pharmacy (IJGP) 4.3.