The Demographic Impact of HIV Infection in Thi-Qar Province/ South Of Iraq

Main Article Content

Ahmed H. Ramadhan
Bushra J. Al Badri


HIV, ELISA, Blood group, Thi-Qar, Rh phenotype


The study extended from February 2022 to February 2023 in the main blood bank in Thi-Qar Province, with the aim of identifying HIV among blood donors, as the blood is one of the main ways of transmission of the virus. ELISA assay was used to screening 43,850 males and females blood donors. Thirty nine infections were recorded, all of them were males. The age group between 18 and 59 years, most of the cases of infection ranged between 30-39 years, with an infection rate of 0.12%. Most of the infection were from urban areas 0.09%. Blood group O was the highest percentage infection among the donors as it was recorded 0.12%. Also found highest infections among Rh+ with rate 0.09%.

Abstract 118 | PDF Downloads 98


1. Al-Ibadi, A. K., & Jaleel, U. A. (2007). Epidemiological aspects of HIV/AIDS in Iraq. Al-Qadisiyah Medical Journal, 2(3), 81-91.
2. Al-Kaysi, A. M., & Ali, N. (2010). Serological and biochemical study of HBV, HCV, HIV and toxoplasmosis infection among blood donors in Iraq. Egypt J Comp Path Clin Path, 23, 1-9.
3. Al-Koubaisy, H. N., Saleh, J. I., Khalil, M. A., Kadhim, N., Naeem, H., & Khalil, N. S. (2020). Status of HIV/AIDS Over Ten Years in Iraq (2010-2019). Prof.(Dr) RK Sharma, 20(4), 4740.
4. Al-Moussawi , D. K., Mohsen, E. S., Kuti, Z.A. (2022). Correlation of HCV Infection and Creatinine Levels in Thalassemia Patients. University of Thi-Qar Journal of Science, 9(2), 80-83.
5. Al-Nafakh, R. T., lteef Al-Fadhul, S. A., Al-Sherees, H. A. A., & Al-Charrakh, A. H. (2019). Seroprevalence of HBV, HCV, and HIV among blood donors in main blood bank in Najaf Province, Iraq. Indian Journal of Public Health, 10(4).
6. Arnold, C. (2003). Denial, lack of information leaves AIDS patients dangerously unaccounted for, Baghdad Bulletin, [Internet].
7. Banu, A., Ahmed, S. M., & Shastri, S. (2011). Distribution of Abo and Rh blood groups in HIV seropositives at an integrated counseling and testing centre in Karnataka, India. SAARC Journal of Tuberculosis, Lung Diseases and HIV/AIDS, 8(2), 42-45.
8. Batool, Z., Durrani, S. H., & Tariq, S. (2017). Association of ABO and Rh blood group types to hepatitis B, hepatitis C, HIV and syphilis infection, a five year’experience in healthy blood donors in a tertiary care hospital. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad, 29(1), 90-92.
9. Brostrom, M., Granich, R., Gupta, S., & Samb, B. (2014). Reimagining HIV Testing in an Era of ART. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 30(S1), A87-A87.
10. Creel, A. H., Rimal, R. N., Mkandawire, G., Böse, K., & Brown, J. W. (2011). Effects of a mass media intervention on HIV-related stigma:‘Radio Diaries’ program in Malawi. Health education research, 26(3), 456-465.
11. Dodd, R. Y., Crowder, L. A., Haynes, J. M., Notari, E. P., Stramer, S. L., & Steele, W. R. (2020). Screening blood donors for HIV, HCV, and HBV at the American Red Cross: 10-year trends in prevalence, incidence, and residual risk, 2007 to 2016. Transfusion Medicine Reviews, 34(2), 81-93.
12. Duri, K., Müller, F., Gumbo, F. Z., Kurewa, N. E., Rusakaniko, S., Chirenje, M. Z., ... & Stray-Pedersen, B. (2011). Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) types Western blot (WB) band profiles as potential surrogate markers of HIV disease progression and predictors of vertical transmission in a cohort of infected but antiretroviral therapy naïve pregnant women in Harare, Zimbabwe. BMC infectious Diseases, 11(1), 1-8.
13. Garcia-Calleja, J. M., Gouws, E., & Ghys, P. D. (2006). National population based HIV prevalence surveys in sub-Saharan Africa: results and implications for HIV and AIDS estimates. Sexually transmitted infections, 82(suppl 3), iii64-iii70.
14. Hroob, A. M. A., Saghir, S. A., Almaiman, A. A., Alsalahi, O. S., Al-Wajeeh, A. S., Al-Shargi, O. Y., ... & Mahmoud, A. M. (2020). Prevalence and association of transfusion transmitted infections with ABO and Rh blood groups among blood donors at the National Blood Bank, Amman, Jordan. Medicina, 56(12), 701.
15. IRIN, Iraq: focus on shortage of medicine for HIV/AIDS patients, UN humanitarian news and information service, 2005[Internet].
16. Kong, W. H., Liu, P., Tang, L., Zhu, Z. R., Xiao, P., Zhan, J. B., ... & Liu, M. Q. (2019). Estimation of the seroconversion duration of HIV-1 antibodies in individuals with recent infection in China. Frontiers in microbiology, 10, 1322.
17. Liu, M. Q., Zhu, Z. R., Kong, W. H., Tang, L., Peng, J. S., Wang, X., ... & Zhou, W. (2016). High rate of missed HIV infections in individuals with indeterminate or negative HIV western blots based on current HIV testing algorithm in China. Journal of medical virology, 88(8), 1462-1466.
18. Liu, P., Tang, L., Kong, W. H., Zhu, Z. R., Xiao, P., Wang, X., ... & Liu, M. Q. (2020). Anti-HIV-1 antibodies based confirmatory results in Wuhan, China, 2012-2018. Plos one, 15(9), e0238282.
19. Makroo, R. N., Chowdhry, M., Bhatia, A., Arora, B., & Rosamma, N. L. (2011). Prevalence of HIV among blood donors in a tertiary care centre of north India. The Indian journal of medical research, 134(6), 950.
20. Mohammed, T., Jwad, M. A., Abbas, A. H., & Jassim, M. F. (2019). Prevalence of HBV, HCV and HIV-1, 2 infections among patients in Saladin governorate, Iraq. Biochemical and Cellular Archives, 19(1), 767-773.
21. Numan, H., & Khalil, N. S. (2021). HIV/AIDS Status in Baghdad/Iraq Over Ten Years. Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology, 15(1), 2253.
22. Okoroiwu, H. U., Okafor, I. M., Asemota, E. A., & Okpokam, D. C. (2018). Seroprevalence of transfusion-transmissible infections (HBV, HCV, syphilis and HIV) among prospective blood donors in a tertiary health care facility in Calabar, Nigeria; an eleven years evaluation. BMC public health, 18(1), 1-8.
23. Onsten, T. G. H., Callegari-Jacques, S. M., & Goldani, L. Z. (2013). The higher frequency of blood group B in a Brazilian population with HIV infection. The Open AIDS Journal, 7, 47.
24. Parija, S. C. (2013). Textbook of Microbiology & Immunology-E-book. Elsevier Health Sciences.
25. Saleh, J. I., Khalil, N. S., Al-Koubaisy, H. N., Mahdi, H. A., Naeem, H., & Kadhim, N. (2021). Socio-demographic Characteristics of Newly Reported HIV Cases in Iraq (1986-2019). Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology, 15(3), 1095.
26. Siransy, L. K., Nanga, Z. Y., Zaba, F. S., Tufa, N. Y., & Dasse, S. R. (2015). ABO/Rh blood groups and risk of HIV infection and Hepatitis B among blood donors of Abidjan, Côte D’ivoire. European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology, 5(3), 205-209.
27. Tuaillon, E., Sanosyan, A., Pisoni, A., Liscouet, J., Makinson, A., & Van de Perre, P. (2017). Staging of recent HIV-1 infection using Geenius rapid confirmatory assay compared to INNO-LIA, New Lav and Blot 2.2 assays. Journal of Clinical Virology, 95, 47-51.
28. Uneke, C. J., Alo, M. N., Ogbu, O., & Ngwu, B. A. (2007). Western blot-indeterminate results in Nigerian patients HIV serodiagnosis: the clinical and public health implication. AIDS Patient Care and STDs, 21(3), 169-176.
29. Van de Perre, P., Simonon, A., Msellati, P., Hitimana, D. G., Vaira, D., Bazubagira, A., ... & Lepage, P. (1991). Postnatal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 from mother to infant: a prospective cohort study in Kigali, Rwanda. New England Journal of Medicine, 325(9), 593-598.
30. Yambasu, E. E., Reid, A., Owiti, P., Manzi, M., Murray, M. J. S., & Edwin, A. K. (2018). Hidden dangers-prevalence of blood borne pathogens, hepatitis B, C, HIV and syphilis, among blood donors in Sierra Leone in 2016: opportunities for improvement: a retrospective, cross-sectional study. Pan African Medical Journal, 30(1).
31. Yu, H., Ou-Yang, Y. Y., Li, N., Nakai, M., & Huang, G. H. (2019). In vitro infectious risk assessment of Heliothis virescens ascovirus 3j (HvAV-3j) toward non-target vertebrate cells. Virologica Sinica, 34(4), 423-433.