Impact of Educational Program Toward Autism spectrum disorder on caregivers’ knowledge at Autism Center in Kirkuk City

Main Article Content

Idrees Hasan Mohammed
Hewa Sattar Salih
Bahar Nasradeen Majeed

Keywords

Educational Program , Autism , Kirkuk City

Abstract

Autism Spectrum Disorder is a spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders occurring in early childhood period, characterized by persistent deficits in social communication and interaction with restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities. A quazi-experimental study was carried out at Autism Center for autism at Kirkuk city starting from (15th November 2021) to (1 st february 2023 ), in order to planned apply an Educational program regarding autistic child to help Caregivers increase their knowledge more to find the relationship between Caregivers knowledge and their general information. A purposive (non-probability) sample of (40) Caregivers were selected from Pediatric Hospital in autism center at Kirkuk city to participate in the program. The program includes several lectures to teach Caregivers about autism and their work test before and after the program for Caregivers to measure the Impact of the program. The Questionnaire format prepared for the purpose of the study and consists of two parts, the first part is related to general information data of children and their Caregivers and the second part is related to Caregivers knowledge for their autistic children represent like a multiple choice which consists of (8) aspects for knowledge and divided into sub-items which to consisting of (56) items. A descriptive statistical analysis procedure like frequency, percentage and mean of score and standard deviation. In addition an inferential analysis procedure (correlation coefficient and ANOVA) were used to analysis the data. The result shows that there is no significant association between Caregivers (Age Groups, Occupation, Family Type, Marital Status, and Economic situation) and their knowledge concerning autistic child, while there is statistical significant association between Caregivers (level of education) and their knowledge at (pre-test& post-test).The Caregivers knowledge were low about autism spectrum disorder of the beginning of an educational programs of autism. The Caregivers knowledge concerning autistic of their children are increasing at post-test and become high at acceptable knowledge level after the beginning of an educational program.The study recommended providing an educational courses for Caregivers attending the autistic center and providing an educational materials like posters, guidelines, leaflets and brochures in autism centers to educate their mass media condition important especially television for Caregivers to educate their.

Abstract 208 | pdf Downloads 118

References

1. Abbas, A.D.(2013). Assessment of Sleep Disorder among Autistic Children. Journal of Kufa for Nursing Science , Vol. (3) No.(3)
2. Abbas, H., Laleh ,H. Shahidi, A. M. (2015). Spiritual Journey in Mothers ' Lived Experiences of Caring for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders. Global journal of health science , Vol.(78), No.(5).
3. Abd El-haliem E K , Sharkawy S A , Mobarak A , Mohamed N T (2013) " Study of Eating Habits for Children with Autism at Assiut City" Journal of American Science , volume 9, Issue 11, pp 485-486.
4. Acebo, C.(2006). Sleep/ wake patterns derived from activity monitoring and maternal report for healthy 1- to 5- year- old children . Sleep, Vol.(28), No.(5) :Pp..1568-1577.
5. Al-Salehi, S. M., & Ghaziuddin, M. (2008). G6PD deficiency in autism. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 18(4), 227–230. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00787-008-0721-9.
6. Amr, M., Raddad, D., El-Mehesh, F., Mahmoud, E. H., & El-Gilany, A. H. (2011). Sex differences in Arab children with Autism spectrum disorders. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 5(4), 1343–1350. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rasd.2011.01.015
7. Angley M, Semple S, Hewton C, Paterson F, McKinnon R. (2007)"Children and autism part 2 management with complementary medicines and dietary interventions" Aust Fam Physician, Volume 36, Issue 10 ,p 827.
8. APA American Psychiatric Association 2016 "What Is Autism Spectrum Disorder" available from https://www.psychiatry.org/patients-families/autism/what-is-autism-spectrum-disorder. (accede 19 April 2016).
9. Arif M M , Niazy A , Hassan B , Ahmed F (2013) "Awareness of Autism in Primary School Teachers" Autism Research and Treatment ,Volume 2013 ,pp 1-2 .
10. Ashwood P, Van de Water J.(2004) "Is autism an autoimmune disease" Autoimmun Rev, Volume 3, Issues 7–8, p 557.
11. Atkins W .(2011) "The history and significance of the autism spectrum" M.Sc. thesis. The University of Toledo . USA .
12. Barton M, Robins D, Jashar D, Brennan L , Fein D (2013)" Sensitivity and Specificity of Proposed DSM-5 Criteria for Autism Spectrum Disorder inToddlers" J Autism Dev Disord, Volume 43, Issue 5 , pp1184,1195.
13. Benjak, T., Vuletic ,G., Simetin, I. (2007). Comparative study on selfperceived health of parents of children with autism spectrum disorders and parents of non-disabled children in Croatia. Croat Medical Journal, Vol .(50),No.(4): pp. 403-409
14. Bent S, Bertoglio K, Hendren RL (2009) "Omega-3 fatty acids for autistic spectrum disorder: a systematic review" J Autism Dev Disord, Volume 39, p 1145.
15. Bird, G.; Cook, R. (2013). "Mixed emotions: the contribution of alexithymia to the emotional symptoms of autism" Translational Psychiatry , VOL 3,Issue 7, p 285.
16. Bjørklund, G., Skalny, A.V., Rahman, M.M., Dadar, M., Yassa, H.A., Aaseth, J., Chirumbolo, S., Skalnaya, M.G. and Tinkov, A.A. (2018), “Toxic metal(loid)-based pollutants and their possible role in autism spectrum disorder”, Environmental Research, Vol. 166, June, pp. 234-50, doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2018.05.020.
17. Bodfish JW, Symons FJ, Parker DE, Lewis MH (2000). "Varieties of repetitive behavior in autism: comparisons to mental retardation" Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, Volume 30, Issue 3, p 237.
18. Buie T, Campbell DB, Fuchs GJ, Furuta GT, Levy J, Vandewater J et al(2010)."Evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of gastrointestinal disorders in individuals with ASDs: a consensus report" Pediatrics ,Volume 125, Issue l 1, pp 1-4.
19. Burgess AF, Gutstein SE (2007). "Quality of life for people with autism: raising the standard for evaluating successful outcomes" Child and Adolescent Mental Health, Volume 12, Issue 2, pp 80–82.
20. Casanova MF (2007). "The neuropathology of autism". Brain Pathology, Volume 17, Issue 4, pp 422–430.
21. CDC Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022) "CDC estimates 1 in 44 children has been identified with autism spectrum disorder" available from http://www.cdc.gov/media/releases/2022/p0327-autism-spectrum-disorder.html (accede 18 December 2022).
22. Chaste P, Leboyer M.(2012) Autism risk factors: genes, environment, and gene-environment interactions" Dialogues Clin Neurosci, VOL 14 , Issue 3, pp281–282.
23. Chisholm K , Lin A , Abu-Akel A, Wood S (2015)."The association between autism and schizophrenia spectrum disorders: A review of
eight alternate models of co-occurrence". Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, VOL 55 , pp 173,175.
24. Chisholm K , Lin A , Abu-Akel A, Wood S (2015)."The association between autism and schizophrenia spectrum disorders: A review of eight alternate models of co-occurrence". Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, VOL 55 , pp 173,175.
25. Chomiak T, Turner N, Hu B. (2013) "What We Have Learned about Autism Spectrum Disorder from Valproic Acid" Pathology Research International ,Volume 2013 , Article ID 712758, p 8 .
26. D Millward C, Ferriter M, Calver S, Connell-Jones G (2008)"Gluten- and casein-free diets for autistic spectrum disorder" Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Volume 2, pp 5-8.
27. Dardennes, R. M., Al Anbar, N. N., Prado-Netto, A., Kaye, K., Contejean, Y., & Al Anbar, N. N. (2011). Treating the cause of illness rather than the symptoms: Parental causal beliefs and treatment choices in autism spectrum disorder. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 32, 1137–1146.
28. Davis ,S.& Carter, A.(2008). Parenting Stress in Mothers and Fathers of Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorders :Associations with Child Characteristics . Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, Vol.(38), No.(5).
29. Dawood, K.S.(2014). Assessment of Quality of Life for Parents of Autistic Child. Iraqi National Journal of Nursing Specialties,Vol.(29), No. (1).
30. DeStefano .F, Price .C, Weintraub .E (2013)"Increasing Exposure to Antibody-Stimulating Proteins and Polysaccharidesin Vaccines Is Not Associated with Risk of Autism" The journal of pediatrics,Vol 163, p 2.
31. Dhossche DM, Reti IM, Wachtel LE.(2009)" Catatonia and autism: a historical review, with implications for electroconvulsive therapy" J ECT. Volume 25, pp 19–22.
32. Dhossche DM, Reti IM, Wachtel LE.(2009)" Catatonia and autism: a historical review, with implications for electroconvulsive therapy" J ECT. Volume 25, pp 19–21.
33. Dillenburger K , Jordan J A., McKerr L., Devine P, Keenan, M (2013) "Awareness and knowledge of autism and autism interventions: Ageneral population survey' Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, VOL 7, pp 1558-1567.
34. Dillenburger, K., Ann Jordan, J., McKerr, L. Devine, P.,& Keenan, M . (2012) .)Awareness and knowledge of autism and autisminterventions ( Thesis). Queen’s In Northern Ireland: University Belfast
35. Dominick ,K.(2007). Atypical Behaviors in Children with Autism and Children with A History of Language Impairment. Research Developmental Disabilities , 28(2):Pp 145-62.
36. Eikeseth S (2009)"Outcome of comprehensive psycho-educational interventions for young children with autism" Research in Developmental Disabilities, Volume 30,Issue 1, pp 158–159.
37. Elbahnasawy, H. T. ,& Girgis, N. M. (2011). Counseling for Mothers to Cope with their Autistic Children. Journal of American Science, Vol. (7), No. (7).
38. El-Baz, F., Ismael, N. A., & El-Din, S. M. N. (2011). Risk factors for autism: A Egyptian study. Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics, 12(1), 31–38. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmhg.2011.02.011
39. Erickson CA, Stigler KA, Corkins MR, Posey DJ, Fitzgerald JF, McDougle CJ. (2005) "Gastrointestinal factors in autistic disorder: a critical review" J Autism Dev isord, Vol 35, Issue6, p 713.
40. Eyles. D, Burne .T, McGrath J (2013)" Vitamin D, effects on brain development, adult brain function and the links between low levels of vitamin D and neuropsychiatric disease" Front Neuroendocrinol ,VOL 34, Issue 1, p 47.
41. Ezaz, A.(2015). The Understanding of Mother’s in regards to their Child’s Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)(Thesis). In Bangladesh Health Professions Institute: University of Dhaka
42. Filipek, P.A., Accardo, P.J., Baranek, G.T., Cook, E.H. Jr, Dawson, G., Gordon, B., Gravel, J.S, et al. (1999), “The screening and diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders”, Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, Vol. 29 No. 2, pp. 439-84.
43. Fombonne. E, Zakarian. R, Bennett. A, Meng .L, McLean-Heywood. D.(2006)" Pervasive developmental disorders in Montreal, Quebec, Canada: prevalence and links with immunizations" Pediatrics, VOL 118, Issue (1) , p139.
44. Freitag CM (2007) "The genetics of autistic disorders and its clinical relevance: a review of the literature" Molecular Psychiatry, VOL 12, Issue (1), pp 2–4.
45. Gardener H, Spiegelman D, Buka SL(2009) "Prenatal risk factors for autism: comprehensive meta-analysis" British Journal of Psychiatry ,VOL 195, pp 7,14.
46. Gautam, S., & Jain, N. (2010). Indian culture and psychiatry. Indian Journal of Psychiatry, 52(7), 309. https://doi.org/10.4103/0019-5545.69259.
47. Geschwind .D (2008). "Autism: many genes, common pathways" Cell ,Volume 135, Issue 3, pp 391–392.
48. Geschwind .D (2009) "Advances in autism" Annual Review of Medicine ,VOL 60, pp 367-368 .
49. Ghaziuddin M(2005) Mental Health Aspects of Autism and Asperger Syndrome. 1 edition. Jessica Kingsley. London N1,pp 15 ,18,48.
50. Ghaziuddin M(2005) Mental Health Aspects of Autism and Asperger Syndrome. 1 edition. Jessica Kingsley. London N1,pp 15 ,18,48.
51. Glasson .E , Psych . B , Hons . B, Carol .B, FAFPHM .D, Petterson .B, et al(2004) Perinatal factors and the development of autism" Archives of General Psychiatry, VOL 61, p 618.
52. Gold C, Wigram T, Elefant C. (2006) "Music therapy for autistic spectrum disorder" Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews" VOL 2, pp 11- 12.
53. Granpeesheh D., Tarbox J., Dixon D. R., Wilke A. E., Allen M. S., Bradstreet J.(2010) "Randomized trial of hyperbaric oxygen therapy for children with autism." Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, Volume 4, Issue 2, pp 268–269
54. Great Plains Skeptic (2016)" The journey from PDD to ASD: What's with all theseletters"availablefrom http://www.skepticink. com/gps/2016/03/09/1548/ (accede1 September 2016).
55. Hamilton AF (2008). "Emulation and mimicry for social interaction: a theoretical approach to imitation in autism" The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Volume 61, Issue 1, p101.
56. Hatton. D, Sideris. J, Skinner . M ,Mankowski .s , Jean. B, Donald. B ea tal (2006). "Autistic behavior in children with fragile X syndrome: Prevalence, stability, and the impact of FMRP" American Journal of Medical Genetics, VOL 140A (17), pp 1804–1806.
57. Howyida S,et al., (2012) “The Effect of Educational Program on Caregivers (Knowledge and Practicing) Toward Their Autistic Children” Journal of American Science ,Volume 8, Issue (1), pp 1-3
58. Jepson B., Granpeesheh D., Tarbox J., Olive M. L., Stott C., Braud S (2011) "Controlled evaluation of the effects of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on the behavior of 16 children withautism spectrum disorders" Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, VOL 41,Issue 5, pp575–578.
59. Jeste SS, Nelson CA (2009)"Event related potentials in the understanding of autism spectrum disorders: an analytical review" J Autism Dev Disord , VOL 39,Issue (3), pp 495–497.
60. Jeste SS, Nelson CA (2009)"Event related potentials in the understanding of autism spectrum disorders: an analytical review" J Autism Dev Disord , VOL 39,Issue (3), pp 495–497.
61. Jiar Y K , Xi Lu (2012) " Parenting Stress And Psychological Distress Among Mothers Of Children With Autism In Johor Bahru And Hangzhou" Malaysia ,Journal of Educational Psychology & Counseling ,Volume 6 , p 129. .
62. Johnson CP, Myers SM (2007)"Identification and evaluation of children with autism spectrum disorders" Pediatrics , VOL 120, Issue 5, p1183.
63. Kamp-Becker, I., Schröder, J., Muehlan, H., Remschmidt, H., Becker, K., & Bachmann, C. (2011). Health-Related Quality of Life in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Zeitschrift Für Kinder- Und Jugendpsychiatrie Und Psychotherapie, 39(2), 123-131. doi: 10.1024/1422-4917/a000098
64. Karst, J. S.; and Van Hecke ,A.V.(2012). Parent and Family Impact of Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Review and Proposed Model for Intervention Evaluation. Journal of clinic child family psychology review , Vol. (15), No.(23) :pp.247-277.
65. Kern. J, Jones .A, (2006)"Evidence of toxicity, oxidative stress, and neuronal insult in autism" Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Part B, VOL 9, p 485.
66. Kheir, N., Ghoneim, O., Sandridge, AL., Al-Ismail, M., Hayder, S., and Al-Rawi, F.(2012).Quality of Life of Caregivers of Children with Autism in Qatar. Autism Journal, Vol.(16),No. (3): pp. 293 -298.
67. Kiani,F., Khodabakhsh , M.R. ,Hashjin , H.K (2014).Comparison of Parenting Related Stress and Depression Symptoms in Mothers of Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). International journal of pediatrics , vol.( 2) ,No.( 3):pp. 31-37
68. Klin. A(2006)"Autism and Asperger syndrome: an overview" Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria ,VOL 28, p 3.
69. Kochel. G, Myers. B (2005)"Congenital versus regressive onset of autism spectrum disorders: Parents beliefs about causes" Focus on Autism
and Other Developmental Disabilities, VOL 20,Issue (3), pp 169-179.
70. Kolevzon A, Gross R, Reichenberg A. (2007) "Prenatal and perinatal risk factors for autism" Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med, VOL161,Issue (4), p 326 .
71. Kulage. K, Smaldone . A , Cohn .E (2014) "How Will DSM-5 Affect Autism Diagnosis? A Systematic Literature Review and Meta-analysis" Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders ,Volume 44, Issue 8, pp 1918-1920.
72. Landa R (2007). "Early communication development and intervention for children with autism" Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews ,Volume 13, Issue (1), pp 16-17.
73. Lazam , M.A.(2013). Assessment of Coping Strategies for Parents of Autistic Child and their relation to educational level. Iraqi National Journal of Nursing Specialties, Vol.(26) ,No.(2).
74. Lee B, Magnusson .C, Gardner .R, Blomström S, Newschaffer CJ, Burstyn I et al ( 2014)"Maternal hospitalization with infection during pregnancy and risk of autism spectrum disorders." Brain, Behavior and Immunity ,VOL44, pp 100–105.
75. Lee MS, Kim JI, Ernst E (May 2013) "Massage therapy for children with autism spectrum disorders: a systematic review" J Clin Psychiatry, Volume 127 , Issue 4, p 487.
76. Levy SE, Hyman SL. (2005)"Novel treatments for autistic spectrum disorders" USA, Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews,Vol 11, Issue 2 ,Pages131–134.
77. Lopez, K., Magana, S., Xu, Y., & Guzman, J. (2018). Mother’s reaction to autism diagnosis: A qualitative analysis comparing Latino and White parents. Journal of Rehabilitation; Alexandria, 84, 41–50.
78. Lord .C, Cook. E, Leventhal .B, Amaral .G (2014)" Autism spectrum disorders" Neuron. Vol. 28, Issue 2, pp 355–357.
79. Lucı´a I. Florı´ndez et al.,( 2021) “Identifying Gaps in Oral Care Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices of Latinx Parents/Caregivers of Children With and Without Autism Spectrum Disorders” Health Equity Volume 5, Issue(1), pp 1-4.\
80. Malhotra ,S., Khan ,W., and Shatia, MS. (2012). Quality of Life of Parents having children with developmental disabilities. Delhi Psychiatric Journal , Vol.(15),No. (1): pp. 171-176.
81. Malow B. A ,Byars K J,ohnson K ,Weiss. S ,Bernal. P ,Goldman S. E,et al( 2012)"A Practice Pathway for the Identification, Evaluation, andManagement of Insomnia in Children and Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorders" Pediatrics, VOL 130, p 106 .
82. Malow ,B.(2006).Characterizing sleep in children with autism spectrum Disorders: A multidimensional approach. Sleep , Vol.(29),No. (12): Pp. 1559-1567.
83. Mandell D S , Novak M , Zubritsky C D (2005) " Factors Associated With Age of Diagnosis Among Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders" Pediatrics Journal , volume 116, Issue 6, p 738.
84. Manzi B, Loizzo AL, Giana G, Curatolo P (2008) "Autism and metabolic diseases" Journal of Child Neurology, VOL 23, Issue 3, pp307–309.
85. Marcdante .kj , Kliegman. RM(2014) Nelson Essentials of Pediatrics. 7th Edition. ,Saunders Elsevier Inc, Philadelphia ,pp 63,66.
86. McConachie H, Diggle T.(2007)" Parent implemented early intervention for young children with autism spectrum disorder: a systematic review" Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice, Vol 13, Issue 1,pp 120–125.
87. McElhanon .B, McCracken C, Karpen S, Sharp WG (2014) "Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Meta-analysis" Pediatrics ,Volume 133, Issue 5 ,pp 872–873.
88. McPartland, J. C., Reichow, B., & Volkmar, F. R. (2012) "Sensitivity and specificity of proposed DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum disorder" Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, Volume 51, pp 368-383.
89. Mehler .M, Purpura .D (2009) "Autism, fever, epigenetics and the locus coeruleus" Brain Research Reviews ,VOL 59, Issue(2), pp 388–889.
90. Millon T, Krueger R, Simonsen E editors (2010)"Contemporary Directions in Psychopathology. Scientific Foundations of the DSM-V and ICD-11" 1 edition ,New York City: Guilford Press. p. 555 [cited 2016 April 27].
91. Millward C, Ferriter M, Calver S, Connell-Jones G (2008)"Gluten- and casein-free diets for autistic spectrum disorder" Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Volume 2, pp 5-8.
92. Misra, V. (2014), “The social brain network and autism”, Annals of Neurosciences, Vol. 21 No. 2, pp. 69-73, doi: 10.5214/ans.0972.7531.210208.
93. Montes, G., & Halterman, J.(2008). Association of childhood autism spectrum disorders and loss of family income. Pediatrics , Vol.121,No.(4 (:pp. 821-826
94. Mthimunye, B.S.( 2014).The Knowledge And Experiences of Single Mothers Raising an
Autistic Child in A Low-Income Community. In The Western Cape ( Thesis). Bellville : University of the Western Cape.
95. Murray D , Currans K , Johnson H , Bing N , Kroeger-Geoppinger K , Sorensen R , et al (2013) " Autism Spectrum Disorders" Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care ,Volume 43, Issue 1, pp 2,11
96. Nadira, P.,Monoarul ,H., Rijwan ,B., Monirul, H., Pradip, K.(2015). Knowledge on care of autistic child among the mothers attending Protibonhi Foundation,Dhaka. Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science, Vol. (14),No.(2).
97. National Autistic Society ( 2010). Diagnostic of Autism . Retrieved from http://www.ibrahimrashidacademy.net .
98. Nelson. K, Bauman. M (2003)" Thimerosal and autism" Pediatrics, VOL 111, Issue 3 ,p 674.Ng .D, Chan. C, Soo. M, Lee .R (2007)"Low-level chronic mercury exposure in children and adolescents: meta-analysis" Pediatrics International ,Volume 49, Issue 1, pp 80–83.
99. Ng. F, Berk .M, Dean .O, Bush .AI(2008)" Oxidative stress in psychiatric disorders: evidence base and therapeutic implications" International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology, VOL11, Issue 6 , pp 851–853.
100. Onore C, Careaga M, Ashwood. P ( 2012)"The role of immune dysfunction in the pathophysiology of autism" Brain, Behavior and Immunity ,Volume 26, Issue 3, p 383.
101. Orsmond GI, Seltzer MM (2007) "Siblings of individuals with autism spectrum disorders across the life course" Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, Vol 13, Issue 4, p 313.
102. Panksepp . A (1979)" neurochemical theory of autism" Trends in Neurosciences. VOL 2, pp 174–175.
103. Paul R. (2009)"Parents ask: am I risking autism if I vaccinate my children" USA, Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, VOL 39, Issue 6 ,p 962.
104. Posey DJ, Stigler KA, Erickson CA, McDougle CJ. (2008)"Antipsychotics in the treatment of autism" Journal of Clinical Investigation , Volume 118, Issue 1, pp 6–8.
105. Razali1 N M, Toran H , Kamaralzaman S , Salleh N M , Hanafi M (2013) "Teachers Perceptions of Including Children with Autism in a Preschool" Asian Social Science, Volume 9, p12.
106. Reyes, N. M., Lindly, O. J., Chavez, A. E., Folan, A., Macias, K., Smith, K. A.,Zuckerman, K.(2018). Maternal beliefs about autism: A link between intervention services and autism severity in White and Latino mothers. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 51, 38–48.
107. Richdale ,AL.,&Schreck ,KA.(2009).Sleep problems in autism spectrum disorders, prevalence nature, possible Bio psychosocial ,A etiologies . SleeMed Rev, Vol.(43),No.(4).
108. Román GC. (2007)Autism: transient in utero hypothyroxinemia related to maternal flavonoid ingestion during pregnancy and to other environmental antithyroid agents" Journal of the Neurological Sciences, Volume 262, pp 15–16.
109. Rossignol DA, Rossignol LW, Smith S, Schneider C, Logerquist S, Usman A et al.(2009 )"Hyperbaric treatment for children with autism: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, controlled trial" BMC Pediatrics, Volume 9, pp 9-12.
110. Rossignol, D. A. (2009) "Novel and emerging treatments for autism spectrum disorders: a systematic review" Annals of Clinical Psychiatry ,Volume 21 ,Issue 4, pp 213–215.
111. Russell .G , Kelly. S , Golding ,(2009) A qualitative analysis of lay beliefs about the aetiology and prevalence of autistic spectrum disorders" Child: care health and development, VOL 36, Issue 3, pp 431,436.
112. Rutter M.(2005)" Incidence of autism spectrum disorders: changes over time and their meaning" Acta Paediatr ,Volume 94, Issue 1, p 2.
113. Schaefer G, Mendelsohn .N (2013) "Clinical genetics evaluation in identifying the etiology of autism spectrum disorders" Genetics in medicine , VOL15, pp 399–401.
114. Schlosser RW, Wendt O. (2008) "Effects of augmentative and alternative communication intervention on speech production in children with autism: a systematic review" American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology , VOL 17,Issue 3, pp 212–214.
115. Schultz .R (2005) "Developmental deficits in social perception in autism: the role of the amygdala and fusiform face area" International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience ,Volume 23, Issues 2–3, p 125.
116. Seba., J, Lakshmi .B, Troge . J, Alexander . J, Young. J, Lundin. P, et al (2004). "Large-Scale Copy Number Polymorphism in the Human Genome" Science, VOL 305, Issue (5683), pp 525–528.
117. Sharpe , D. L.,& Baker D. L.(2007). Financial issue associated with having a child with autism. Journal of Family Economic Issue, Vol. (28), No .(14):pp.247-64
118. Shattock .P , Whiteley .P (2002) "Biochemical aspects in autism spectrum disorders: updating theopioid-excess theory and presenting new opportunities for biomedical intervention" Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets ,Volume 6, Issue 2, p 175.
119. Shaukat F, Fatima A, Zehra N , Hussein M, Ismail O (2014)" Assessment of knowledge about childhood autism among medical students from private and public universities in Karachi" J Pak Med Assoc, Volume 64, Isuue (11), pp 1331-1334.
120. Sigman M, Dijamco A, Gratier M, Rozga A (2004)"Early detection of core deficits in autism". Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews ,Volume 10, Issue 4, pp 221–223,
121. Siniscalco . D, Cirillo . A, Bradstreet .J, Antonucci.N(2013) " Epigenetic Findings in Autism: New Perspectives for Therapy" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, VOL 10, pp 4261-4263.
122. Sipos ,R., Predescu E.,Muresan G. ,and Iftene F.(2012). The Evaluation of Family Quality of Life of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder . Applied Medical Informatics, Vol. (30), No. (1): Pp. 1-8.
123. Stefansson.H ,Meyer-Lindenberg .A,Steinberg. S, Magnusdottir .B, Morgen. K, Arnarsdottir. S, et al (2013). "CNVs conferring risk of autism or schizophrenia affect cognition in controls". Nature, VOL 505 ,(7483),p361–363.
124. Stigler. K , Sweeten .L, Posey. D, McDougle. C. (2009)"Autism and immune factors: a comprehensive review" Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, Volume 3, Issue 4, pp 840–841.
125. Surmen A, Hidiroglu S, Hande U H , Awiwi M , Saki O A, Karavus M , Karavus A (2015) "exploring knowledge, attitudes and behaviours towards autism among adults applying to a Family Health Center in Istanbul" Northern Clinics of İstanbul, VOL 2, Issue 1 , pp13-18.
126. Tadesse ,A. (2014). Families Living with a Child Diagnosed with Autism: Challenges and Coping Mechanisms (Thesis).In Ethiopia: University Addis Ababa, School of Social Work, Art
127. Tager-Flusberg. H (2010) The origins of social impairments in autism spectrum disorder: studies of infants at risk" Neural Networks, VOL 23 , pp 1072–1074.
128. Treffert DA (2009) "The savant syndrome: an extraordinary condition. A synopsis: past,present, future" Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, Vol 364, (1522) ,pp1351–1352.
129. Turkington, C. and Anan, R. (2007), The Encyclopedia of Autism Spectrum Disorder: Facts on File, Infobase Publishing, New York, NY, p. viii.
130. Uher, R ( 2009). "The role of genetic variation in the causation of mental illness: an evolution-informed framework" Molecular Psychiatry, VOL 14,Issue 12 ,pp 1072–1073.
131. Ullah S , Aqdas M I , Khan N , Nabi G , Aziz T (2015)" Awareness Regarding Autism in Schools’ Teachers at District Lower Dir, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa" Universal Journal of Medical Science ,volume 3, Issue 3,pp 55-59.
132. Underwood L, McCarthy J, Tsakanikos E.(2010)" Mental health of adults with autism spectrum disorders and intellectual disability" Current Opinion in Psychiatry, Volume 23, Issue 5, pp 421–426.
133. Wang, J., Zhou, X., Xia, W., Sun, C. and Wu, L. (2012), “Autism awareness and attitudes towards treatment in caregivers of children aged 3–6 years in Harbin, China”, Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, Vol. 47 No. 8, pp. 1301-8, available at: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00127-011-0438-9
134. Williams DL, Goldstein G, Minshew NJ (2006). "Neuropsychologic functioning in children with autism: further evidence for disordered complex information-processing" Child Neuropsychol ,Volume 12 ,Issue 4-5 , p 279 .
135. Williams JH (2008) "Self–other relations in social development and autism: multiple roles for mirror neurons and other brain bases" Autism Research, Volume 1, Issue 2, pp 73–75.
136. Willis Clarissa(2006) Teaching Young Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder. 1 edition .Gryphon House, Inc. United States of America. pp 20-21.
137. Wolff S.(2004) " The history of autism" European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry , VOL 13, p 4.
138. Worley, J. A., & Matson, J. L. (2012) "Comparing symptoms of autism spectrum disorders using the current DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria and the proposed DSM-V diagnostic criteria" Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, Vol 6, Issue 2, pp 965-970.
139. Zafeiriou D, Ververi A ,Vargiami E (2007) "Childhood autism and associated comorbidities " Brain & Development , VOL 29 , pp 257 ,272.
140. Zafeiriou D, Ververi A ,Vargiami E (2007) "Childhood autism and associated comorbidities " Brain & Development , VOL 29 , pp 257 ,259.