Evaluation of the actual nutrition of preschool children

Main Article Content

Zarema Zalbegovna Surkhayeva
Patimat Magomedovna Ibnumashudova
Umiyat Abdulbasirovna Magomedova
Raisa Gereikhanovna Suleymanova
Patimat Magomedovna Rabadanova
Jamilya Shamilyevna Bagandova
Aishat Aminovna Aminova
Angela Esedovna Esedova
Aminat Sultanbegovna Magdieva


nutrition, diet, preschool period, macronutrients, micronutrients


Preschool age is a crucial period during which the physical and intellectual maturation of the child takes place, which is necessary for preparing education for school. Children’s nutrition at this time is vital since, on the one hand, it should ensure healthy development and, on the other hand, form the proper eating habits, which can affect the rest of their lives. There are some difficulties in assessing optimal nutrition in children because different research groups use other evaluation criteria, including macronutrients, micronutrients, certain foods, frequency of meals, food processing patterns, energy intake, amount of vitamins, trace elements, etc. Indirect indicators can be, for example, the child’s body weight and growth retardation in the children’s team. The repertoire of nutrition assessment tools is also extensive and may include questionnaires, physical measurements of portions, food tables, diaries, and other methods.The purpose of this article is to review various methods for recording and evaluating the diet of preschool children.

Abstract 123 | pdf Downloads 158


1. Bellows L.L., Lou Y., Nelson R., Reyes L.I., Brown R.C., Mena N.Z., Boles R.E. A Narretive Review of Dietary Assesment Tools for Preschool-Aged Children in the Home Environment. Nutrients. 2022; 14(22): 4793. doi:10.3390/nu14224793.
2. Sarymsakova J.A., Beisbekova A.K., Kaldybai A.U. (2020) “Features of nutrition of children in preschool institutions in modern conditions” // Vestnik KAZNMU. №1: 134-136.
3. Migunova Yu.V., Sadykov R.M. “Nutrition of children in modern Russian family: social and economic aspect” Voprosy pitaniia. 2018;87(2):103-107. Russian. doi: 10.24411/0042-8833-2018-10024. Epub 2018 Feb 26. PMID: 30592874.
4. Vollmer R.L., Mobley A.R. Parenting Styles, Feeding Styles, and Their Influence on Child Obesogenic Behaviors and Body Weight. A Review. Appetite. 2013; 71: 232-241. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2013.08.015.
5. Draxten M., Fulkerson J.A., Friend S., Flattum C.F., Schow R. Parental Role Modeling of Fruits and Vegetables at Meals and Snacks Is Associated with Children’s Adequate Consumption. Appetite. 2014; 78: 1–7. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2014.02.017.
6. Robson S.M., Couch S.C., Peugh J.L., Glanz K., Zhou C., Sallis J.F., Saelens B.E. Parent Diet Quality and Energy Intake Are Related to Child Diet Quality and Energy Intake. J. Acad. Nutr. Diet. 2016; 116: 984–990. doi: 10.1016/j.jand.2016.02.011.
7. Bekelman T.A., Bellows L.L., Johnson S.L. Are Family Routines Modifiable Determinants of Preschool Children’s Eating, Dietary Intake, and Growth? A Review of Intervention Studies. Curr. Nutr. Rep. 2017; 6: 171–189. doi: 10.1007/s13668-017-0207-9.
8. Puzyrev V. G., Vasilyeva I. V., Kapyrina Yu. N., Kropot A. I. (2020) “Sanitary and hygienic assessment of nutrition in preschool organisations
of Saint Petersburg” // Medicine and Healthcare Organisation. Vol. 5(2): 19-25.
9. Kodentsova V.M., Risnik D.V. Multiple micronutrient deficiency in preschool children and methods for its correction. Lechaschi Vrach. 2020;(6):52-57. (In Russ.) https://doi.org/10.26295/OS.2020.65.20.010.
10. Dao M.C., Subar A.F., Warthon-Medina M., Cade J.E., Burrows T., Golley R.K., Forouhi N.G., Pearce M., Holmes B.A. Dietary Assessment Toolkits: An Overview. Public Health Nutr. 2019; 22: 404–418. doi: 10.1017/S1368980018002951.
11. Roberts S.B., Franceschini M.A., Silver R.E., Taylor S.F., de Sa A.B, Có R., Sonco A., Krauss A., Taetzsch A., Webb P., Das S.K, Chen C.Y., Rogers B.L., Saltzman E., Lin P.Y., Schlossman N., Pruzensky W., Balé C., Chui K.K.H., Muentener P. Effects of food supplementation on cognitive function, cerebral blood flow, and nutritional status in young children at risk of undernutrition: randomised controlled trial. B.M.J. 2020; 370: m2397. doi: 10.1136/bmj.m2397.
12. Kunasheva Zh.M., Kisheva Z.M. (2021) “Organisation of baby food in school and preschool institutions” // VII International Scientific and Practical Conference “Agricultural Land Use and Food Security” dedicated to the memory of the Honored Scientist of the Russian Federation, Kabardino-Balkaria, Republic of Adygea, Professor B.H. Fiapshev, Nalchik, Kabardino-Balkarian State Agrarian University named after V. M. Kokov on March 22, 2021. Nalchik, 2021. – pp. 167-171.
13. DAPA Measurement Toolkit [Интернет-ресурс] Доступно по адресу: www.measurement-toolkit.org (ссылка активна: 28.03.2023).
14. Orkusz A.Nutrients. An Assessment of the Nutritional Value of the Preschool Food Rations for Children from the Wroclaw District, Poland-The Case of a Big City. 2022; 14(3): 460. doi: 10.3390/nu14030460.
15. Orlovskaya M.I. (2021) “The study of parents’ awareness of rational nutrition and nutrition features of preschoolers” // Actual problems of hygiene and environmental medicine. Collection of materials of the VII interuniversity student scientific and practical Internet conference with international participation on December 2, 2021. Grodno: GrSMU, 2021 –145-149.
16. Pérez Moreno J., de la Mata Navazo S., López-Herce Arteta E., Tolín Hernani M., González Martínez F., González Sánchez M.I., Rodríguez Fernández R. Influence of nutritional status on clinical outcomes in hospitalised children. AnPediatr (Engl Ed). 2019; 91(5): 328-335. doi: 10.1016/j.anpedi.2019.01.014.
17. Suri S., Dutta A., Raghuvanshi R.S., Singh A., Shahi N.C., Chopra C.S. Study on Dietary Pattern, Nutritional Status and Socio-Demographic Determinants of the Preschool Children Aged 3-6 Years. Ecol Food Nutr. 2022; 61(2): 144-161. doi: 10.1080/03670244.2021.1969926.
18. Warnakulasuriya L.S., Fernando M.A.M., Adikaram A.V.N., Thawfeek A.R.M., Anurasiri W.M.L., Elisabet R., Bergsten P., Silva K.D.R.R., Samaranayake D.L., Wickramasinghe V.P. Assessment of Nutritional Status in Sri Lankan Children: Validity of Current Anthropometry Cutoffs? Asia Pac J Public Health. 2019; 31(7): 633-642. doi: 10.1177/1010539519872061.
19. Campbell K.J., Abott GMPH, Zheng M., Mc Naughton S.A. Early Life Protein Intake: Food Sources, Correlates, and Tracking across the First 5 Years of Life. J. Acad. Nutr. Diet. 2017; 117: 1188–1197. doi: 10.1016/j.jand.2017.03.016.
20. Delimaris J. Adverse effects associated with protein intake above the recommended dietary allowance for adults. ISRN Nutr. 2013; 2013: 1–6. doi: 10.5402/2013/126929.
21. Veselinović A., Petrović S., Žikić V., Subotić M., Jakovljević V., Jeremić N., Vučić V. Neuroinflammation in Autism and Supplementation Based on Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: A Narrative Review. Medicina (Kaunas). 2021; 57(9) 893. doi: 10.3390/medicina57090893.
22. Podpeskar A., Crazzolara R., Kropshofer G., Hetzer B., Meister B., Müller T., Salvador C. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Their Role in Pediatric Cancer. Nutrients. 2021; 13(6): 1800. doi: 10.3390/nu13061800.
23. Elijovich F., Kleyman T.R., Laffer C.L., Kirabo A. Immune Mechanisms if Dietary Salt-Induced Hypertension and Kidney Disease: Harry Goldblatt Award for Early Career Investigators 2020. Hypertension. 2021; 78(2): 252-260. doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.121.16495.
24. He F.J., Tan M., Ma Y., MacGregor G.A. Salt Reduction to Prevent Hypertension and Cardiovascular Disease: JACC State-of-the-Art Review. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2020; 75(6): 632-647. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2019.11.055.
25. Wu X., Chen L., Cheng J., Qian J., Fang Z., Wu J. Effect of Dietary Salt Intake on Risk of Gastric Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Case-Control Studies. Nutrients. 2022; 14(20): 4260. doi: 10.3390/nu14204260.
26. Sievenpiper J.L. Low-carbohydrate diets and cardiometabolic health: the importance
of carbohydrate quality over quantity. Nutr Rev. 2020; 78(Suppl 1): 69-77. doi: 10.1093/nutrit/nuz082.
27. Rice Bradley B.H. Dietary Fat and Risk for Type 2 Diabetes: a Review of Recent Research. Curr Nutr Rep. 2018; 7(4): 214-226. doi: 10.1007/s13668-018-0244-z.
28. Govender L., Pillay K., Siwela M., Modi A.T., Mabhaudhi T. Assessment of the Nutritional Status of Four Selected Rural Communities in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Nutrients. 2021; 13(9): 2920. doi: 10.3390/nu13092920.
29. Stroba M., Malinowska-Borowska J. Assessment of calcium and vitamin D content in meals served for preschool children attending to kindergartens in some Silesian cities. Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig. 2021; 72(1): 83-88. doi: 10.32394/rpzh.2021.0149.
30. Rahman S., Lee P., Ireen S., Khan M.U., Ahmed F. Validation of an interviewer-administered seven-day semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire for the dietary assessment of preschool children in rural Bangladesh. J Nutr Sci. 2021; 10: e26. doi: 10.1017/jns.2021.19.
31. Shaaban S., Nassar M., El-Gendy Y., El-Shaer B. Nutritional risd screening of hospitalised children aged < 3 years. East Mediterr Health J. 2019; 25(1): 18-23. doi: 10.26719/emhj.18.019.
32. Kang M., Shim J.E. Development of a food frequency questionnaire for dietary intake of preschool children. Nutr Res Pract. 2020; 14(4): 374-383. doi: 10.4162/nrp.2020.14.4.374.
33. Kim S.Y., Cha S.M. Evaluation of dietary behaviors of preschool children in Seoul and Gyeonggi-do associated with the level of parents’ health consciousness: using nutrition quotient for preschoolers (NQ-P). Nutr Res Pract. 2021; 15(2): 248-265. doi: 10.4162/nrp.2021.15.2.248.
34. Ma Y., Tan J., Tan Z., Shang L. Validity and Reliability of Semiquantitative Food Frequency Questionnaires for Assessing Nutrient Intake among Preschool Children in Northwest China. J Healthc Eng. 2022; 2022: 1677252. doi: 10.1155/2022/1677252.
35. Cuong D.H., Tam V.V., Tinh HQ, Do LT, Nghia NT, Anh HC Research on Nutriton, Dental Caries Status Using Novel Methods, and Related Factors to Preschool Children in Rural Areas of Vietnam. J Anal Methods Chem. 2022; 2022: 7363163. doi: 10.1155/2022/7363163.
36. Kurmakhina N.A., Kuleva O. Yu. “Pedagogical conditions for the formation of ideas about rational nutrition in children aged 6-7 years” [Internet source]: https://interactive-plus.ru/e-articles/852/Action852-559296.pdf (access: 28.03.2023).
37. Boryaeva D.D., Maksimova A.A., Ternovskaya E.A., Tsunina N.M. (2022) “The changes in the nutritional status of children during the one-year follow-up during the transition from the preschool educational institution to school” // Science of the XXI century: challenges, formation, development Collection of articles of the VI International Scientific and Practical Conference held on October 20, 2022 in Petrozavodsk. Petrozavodsk: Russian Federation ICNP “New Science”, 2022. pp. 12-16.
38. Kholikov K.B. (2022) “Competence and competence approach in teaching preschool
children” // Science and Education Scientific Journal. 2022; 3(2): 1208-1214.
39. Grashchenkov D.V., Chugunova O.V., Arisov A.V. (2019) “Modern approaches to the organisation of baby food” // Food industry. No.2: 65-70.
40. Resolution No. 32 of October 27, 2020 On the Approval of Sanitary and Epidemiological Rules and the SanPiN Norm 2.3/2.4.3590-20 “Sanitary and epidemiological requirements for the organisation of public catering of the population”. Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights Protection and Human Well-Being. Resolution of the Chief State Sanitary Doctor of the Russian Federation, 44.