The Psychological Effects of Social Phobia on Undergraduate Students in the south of Jordan

Main Article Content

Faris Alsaraireh
Heba Althnaibat
Hammam Leimoon
Yazan Al-Mrayat
Rasha Al Dalaeen

Keywords

Psychological Effects, Social Phobia, Undergraduate Students, Liebowitz Scale

Abstract

The problem of social phobia is a health and psychological problem, which should be focused on during meetings, events, scientific participation’s and conferences among students within the university. Despite the importance of this aspect, less research has been conducted on it, especially in Arab countries. The purpose of the current work is to reveal the existence of the problem of social phobia among students of Jordanian public universities (Mutah University) in southern Jordan and determine the psychological effects of the problem of social phobia and its development among university students. This quantitative study was conducted on a sample of undergraduate students at different levels of study and from different faculties. Where they were chosen randomly and the number of participants was (615). The data was obtained through the use of a clear and controlled questionnaire. In addition, the data were analyzed using the descriptive analysis method, statistical analysis, and the psychosocial adjustment scale (Liebowitz). The results of this study, after analyzing the data, showed that 63.9% of the participants’ students (male and female) do not suffer from social phobia, and 21.6% of them have slight effects of social phobia and it has moderate psychological effects that affect their lives, while 14.5% of the participating students have a high level of feeling social phobia. This means that university students have a high sense of psychological and social adjustment, thus the psychological impact of social phobia affects the quality of lives of students. Where the participating students who suffer from social phobia, their quality of life is not good. The most important finding in this study is that social phobia exists among university students, especially females, and this affects their quality of life and it also causes psychological effects. The spread of social phobia among students may increase with time, so this problem must be taken care of and treated early. We also recommend decision-makers, officials, and specialists in the psychological aspect run specific programs and raise awareness and treat the injured by specialists in the field of mental health to avoid the spread of social phobia and reduce its psychological effects.

Abstract 1264 | pdf Downloads 609

References

1. Akçakoyun F. Analysis of self-esteem levels of students in physical education and sports high school. J Educ Train Stud, 2018;6(2):73-79. doi:10.11114/jets.v6i2.2951
2. Mäki P. Social phobia and depression in adolescence in the general population and 2 yearsfollow up. Social phobia and depression in adolescence in general population concurrent associations. Acta Univ Tampere, 2015; 2040.
3. Stein MB, Kean YM. Disability and quality of life in social phobia: epidemiologic findings. Am J Psychiatry, 2000;157(10):1606–1613. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.157.10.1606
4. Green-Landell M Social anxiety disorder in Swedish adolescents: prevalence, victimization & development [Internet]. Unitryck, Linköping, Sweden; 2010. Available from: http://www.diva-portal. org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:329270. Accessed January 5, 2022.
5. Djidonou A, Tchégnonsi FT, Adoukonou T. Associated factors and impacts of social phobia on academic performance among students from the university of Parakou (UP). Open J Psychiatry, 2016;6:151–157. doi:10.4236/ojpsych.2016.62018
6. Bella TT, Omigbodun OO. Social phobia in Nigerian university stu- dents: prevalence, correlates and co-morbidity. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol, 2009;44(6):458–463. doi:10.1007/s00127-008-0457-3
7. Reta Y, Ayalew M, Yeneabat T. Social anxiety disorder among under- graduate students of Hawassa University, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Ethiopia. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat, 2020;16:571–577. doi:10.2147/NDT.S235416
8. Mekuria K, Mulat H, Derajew H, et al. High magnitude of social anxiety disorder in school adolescents. Psychiatry J, 2017;5.
9. Desalegn GT, Getinet W, Tadie G. The prevalence and correlates of social phobia among undergraduate health science students in Gondar, Gondar Ethiopia. BMC Res Notes, 2019;12(1):1–6. doi:10.1186/s13104-019-4482-y
10. De Menezes GB, Fontenelle LF, Versiani M. Trans-cultural aspects of social anxiety disorder and related conditions: a Brazilian case series and a review of international clinical studies. J Bras Psiquiatr, 2006;55(3):196–200. doi:10.1590/S0047-20852006000300004
11. Abdu Z, Hajure M, Desalegn D. Suicidal behavior and associated factors among students in Mettu University, South West Ethiopia, 2019: an Institutional Based Cross-Sectional Study. Psychol Res Behav Manag, 2020;13:233-243.
12. Uysal Ş, Özen H, Madenoğlu C. Social phobia in higher education: the influence of nomophobia on social phobia. Glob eLEARNING J, 2016;5(2):50–51.
13. Luan, Ya-Song, et al. "The Experience Among College Students with Social Anxiety Disorder in Social Situations: A Qualitative
Study." Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 2022:(18): 1729-1737.
14. Ju M. Intervention study of social anxiety disorder of china university students (review). Adv Psychol, 2021;11(9):2085–2091. doi:10.12677/ ap.2021.119236
15. Luan, Ya-Song, et al. "The Experience Among College Students with Social Anxiety Disorder in Social Situations: A Qualitative Study." Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 2022: (18): 1729-1733.
16. Hakami, Ramzi M., et al. "Social anxiety disorder and its impact in undergraduate students at Jazan University, Saudi Arabia." Mental illness, 2018:9(2):7274. doi: 10.4081/mi.2017.7274..
17. Sartorius N, Oston B. Depression comorbid with anxiety: results from the WHO study on psychological disorders in primary health care. Br J Psychiatry, 1996;168:38–43.
18. Abdu Z, Hajure M, Desalegn D. Suicidal behavior and associated factors among students in Mettu University, South West Ethiopia, 2019: an Institutional Based Cross-Sectional Study. Psychol Res Behav Manag, 2020;13:233-243.
19. Waechter, S., Moscovitch, D. A., Vidovic, V., Bielak, T., Rowa, K., & McCabe, R. E. Working memory capacity in social anxiety disorder: Revisiting prior conclusions. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 2018: 127(3), 276-281. doi: 10.1037/abn0000341.
20. Noble, Helen, and Joanna Smith. "Issues of validity and reliability in qualitative research." Evidence-based nursing, 2015:18 (2): 34-35.
21. Nagata T. Social Anxiety Disorder. Seishin Shinkeigaku Zasshi, 2015;117(4):283–291.
22. Benitez-Borrego, S., Guardia-Olmos, J., & Urzúa-Morales, A. Factorial structural analysis of the Spanish version of WHOQOL-BREF: An exploratory structural equation model study. Quality of Life Research, 2014: 23(8), 2205-2212..
23. Bodenheimer, T. S., & Smith, M. D. Primary care: proposed solutions to the physician shortage without training more physicians. Health Affairs, 2013: 32(11), 1881-1886.
24. Kessler RC, Berglund P, Demler O, Jin R, Merikangas KR, Walters EE. Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the national comorbidity survey replication. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 2009;62:593–602. doi:10.1001/archaic. 62.6.593
25. Thapliyal, P., Mitchison, D., Miller, C., Bowden, J., Alejandro González-Chica, D., Stocks, N., ... & Hay, P. Comparison of mental health treatment status and use of antidepressants in men andwomen with eating disorders. Eating disorders, 2018: 26(3), 248-262.
26. Hajure, Mohammedamin, and Zakir Abdu. "Social phobia and its impact on quality of life among regular undergraduate students of Mettu University, Mettu, Ethiopia." Adolescent Health, Medicine and Therapeutics, 2020;11:79-87. doi: 10.2147/AHMT.S254002..
27. Reta, Y., Ayalew, M., Yeneabat, T., & Bedaso, A. Social anxiety disorder among undergraduate students of Hawassa University, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Ethiopia. Neuropsychiatric disease and treatment, 2020;16:571-577. doi: 10.2147/NDT.S235416..
28. Alkhalifah AK, Alsalameh NS, Alhomaidhy MA. Prevalence of social phobia among medical students in Saudi Arabia. Egypt J Hosp Med, 2017;69(5):2412–2416. doi:10.12816/0041685
29. Gültekin BK, Dereboy IF. The prevalence of social phobia, and its impact on quality of life, academic achievement, and identity form- tion in university students. Turk Psikiyatr Derg, 2011;22(3):150–158.
30. Education P, Kahramanmara S, Education P, Kahramanmara S. Analysis of social phobia levels of university students who and who do not do. Int J Bus Manag Soc Sci, 2016;7(3):72–77.
31. Lampe, L., et al. "Social phobia in the Australian national survey of mental health and well-being (NSMHWB)." Psychological Medicine, 2003:33(4): 637-646.
32. Shah, P., and Lakhan Kataria. "Social phobia and its impact in Indian university students." The Internet Journal of Mental Health, 2010:6(2): 1-8.
33. Suryaningrum, Cahyaning. "College student’s social anxiety: a study of the young people mental health in digital age." Jurnal Konseling dan Pendidikan, 2021:9(1): 1-10.
34. Mustafa, R. Bani, et al. "Social phobia among university students in Jordan." Life Sci J , 2014:11(2).
35. Ahmad, Rukhos Jabar, et al. "Prevalence of social anxiety in students of college of education–university of Garmian." Researchers World, 2017:8(3): 79-83.
36. Stein DJ, Vythilingum B. Anxiety disorders and gender. Anxiety Disord Gend, 2015;1–168
37. Kendler KS, Neale MC, Kessler RC, Heath AC, Eaves LJ. The genetic epidemiology of phobias in women: the interrelationship of agoraphobia, social phobia, situational phobia, and simple phobia. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 1992;49(4):273–
281. doi:10.1001/archpsyc. 1992.01820040025003
38. Rapee RM. Recent advances in the treatment of social phobia. Aust Psychol,1993;28(3):168–171. doi:10.1080/00050069308258897
39. Education P, Kahramanmara S, Education P, Kahramanmara S. Analysis of social phobia levels of university students who and who do not do. Int J Bus Manag Soc Sci, 2016;7(3):72–77.
40. Garcia-Lopez, L. J., Salvador, M. D. C., & Reyes, A. D. L. Assessment of social anxiety in adolescents. Social anxiety and phobia in adolescents, 2015:121-150.
41. Tillfors M, Furmark ÆT. Social phobia in Swedish university stu- dents: prevalence, subgroups and avoidant behavior. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol, 2007;2:1–7.
42. Daros, Alexander R., et al. "Impact of social anxiety and social context on college students’ emotion regulation strategy use: An experience sampling study." Motivation and emotion, 2019:43(5): 844-855.
43. Baba, Ami, Stefan Kloiber, and Gwyneth Zai. "Genetics of social anxiety disorder: a systematic review." Psychiatric Genetics, 2021:32(2): 37-66.
44. Kendler, Kenneth S., et al. "The genetic epidemiology of phobias in women: The interrelationship of agoraphobia, social phobia, situational phobia, and simple phobia." Archives of general psychiatry, 1992:49(4): 273-281.
45. National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health. Social anxiety disorder: the NICE guideline on recognition, assessment and treatment. Royal College of Psychiatrists, 2013.
46. El-Tantawy, Ashraf M., et al. "Social phobia among patients attending the outpatient clinics of Buraydah Mental Health Hospital, Al-Gassim, KSA." Curr Psychiatry, 2010:17: 35-43.
47. Alkhathamia, Saleh, Hossein Kaviania, and Emma Shorta. "Social anxiety among adolescents and its relation to quality of life." Eur Proc Soc Behav Sci, 2014, DOI:10.15405/epsbs.2014.05.24
48. Hajure, Mohammedamin, Manderas Tariku, and Zakir Abdu. "Prevalence and Associated Factors of Social Phobia Among College of Health Science Students, Mettu Town, Southwest Ethiopia 2019; Institutional Based Cross-Sectional Study." The Open Public Health Journal, 2020:13(1): 373-379.