What are People in Bali Doing in Pandemic: Understanding the Shape of Health Behavior and the Pitutur Tua

Main Article Content

Ni Made Swasti Wulanyani
Wahyu Rahardjo
Putu Yoga Sukma Pratama
I Made Sudarmaja
Nyoman Sukma Arida
Anak Agung Istri Via Aristyawati

Keywords

Bali, Covid-19 Pandemic, Beliefs, Rituals

Abstract

In the early occurrence of the Covid-19 pandemic, Indonesian and the world regarded Bali having a unique mechanism. Balinese or Bali residents are assumed excellently immune or difficulty infected from Covid-19. Interestingly, Balinese do not show overwhelmed panic as occurs in other areas although the Covid-19 cases in Bali are not low. There are various reasons why Balinese's actions to protect their health consider beliefs, religion, and culture. This paper is a survey of the Balinese's distinctive perception and behavior to face Covid-19. The information was gained from comments, opinions, and information about typical behavior posted on mass media and social media. The main source of the information was the WhatsApp groups of Banjar community (60 people), Bali academicians (76 people), Hindu organization alumni (113 people), and Bali medical staff (30 people). This study collected the information and conversations during early months of the pandemic in 2020 and 2021 when the Covid-19 cases skyrocketed and the government implemented the Community Activities Restrictions Enforcement (PPKM). This study concludes that the belief in the power of nature makes the sincerity and acceptance more easily appear. Moreover, tradition strengthens the trust. Support in social life also increases cooperative actions to the rules or advices of the Bali government and the custom village assembly to protect society from the pandemic.

Abstract 154 | PDF Downloads 152

References

1. Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50(2), 179-211. doi:10.1016/0749-5978(91)90020-t
2. Ajzen, I. (2020). The theory of planned behavior: Frequently asked questions. Human Behavior and Emerging Technologies, 2, 314-324. doi: 10.1002/hbe2.195
3. Ajzen, I., & Fishbein, M. (2005). The influence of attitudes on behavior. In D. Albarracín, B. T. Johnson, & M. P. Zanna (Eds.), The handbook of attitudes (p. 173-221). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
4. Bronfman, N. C., Repetto, P. B., Cisternas, P. C., & Castaneda, J. V. (2021). Factors influencing the adoption of COVID-19 preventive behaviors in Chile. Sustainability, 13, 5331. https://doi.org/ 10.3390/su13105331
5. Burger, J., Girgis, Z., & Manning, C. (2011). In their own words: Explaining obedience to authority through an examination of participants' comments. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 2(5), 460-466. doi: 10.1177/1948550610397632
6. Coroiu, A., Moran, C., Lindsay, B. L., & Geller, A. C. (2021). Parent-for-child mask behavior during the COVID-19 pandemic in Canada and the United States: An investigation of attitudes, norms, and perceived control using the theory of planned behavior. Preventive Medicine Reports, 24, 101533. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pmedr.2021.101533
7. Eagleson, C., Hayes, S., Mathews, A., Perman, G., & Hirsch, C. R. (2016). The power of positive thinking: Pathological worry is reduced by thought replacement in Generalized Anxiety Disorder. Behaviour Research & Therapy, 78, 13-18. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1016/j.brat.2015.12.017
8. Emmons, R. A., McCullough, M. E., & Tsang, J. A. (2003). The assessment of gratitude. In S. J. Lopez & C. R. Snyder (Eds.), Positive psychological assessment: A handbook of models
and measures (pp. 327-341). American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/10612-021
9. Frounfelker, R. L., Santavicca, T., Li, Z. Y., Miconi, D., Venkatesh, V., & Rousseau, C. (2021). COVID-19 experiences and social distancing: Insights from the Theory of Planned Behavior. American Journal of Health Promotion, 1-10. Doi: 10.1177/08901171211020997
10. Green, L., & Kreuter, M. (2005). Health program planning: An educational and ecological approach (4th edition). New York: McGraw Hill.
11. Holt, C. L., Clark, E. M., & Roth, D. L. (2014). Positive and negative religious beliefs explaining the religion-health connection among African Americans. The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 24, 311-331. doi: 10.1080/10508619.2013.828993
12. Islm, T., Meng, H., Pitafi, A. H., Zafar, A. U., Sheikh, Z., Mubarik, M. S., & Liang, X. (2021). Why do citizens engage in government social media accounts during COVID-19 pandemic? A comparative study. Telematics and Informatics, 62, 101619. doi: 10.1016/j.tele.2021.101619
13. Katsuki, R., Kubo, H., Yamakawa, I., Shinfuku, N., Sartorius, N., Sakamoto, S., & Kato, T. A. (2021). Association between self-restrain behavior, stigma and depressive tendency in office workers during the COVID-19 pandemic in Japan: Self-restrain behavior and depression during the COVID-19. Psychiatry International, 2, 300-309. https://doi.org/10.3390/psychiatryint 2030023
14. Khuan, N. W., Shaban, R. Z., & van de Mortel, T. (2018). The influence of religious and cultural beliefs on hand hygiene behavior in the United Arab Emirates. Infection, Disease & Health, 23, 225-236. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.idh.2018.07.004
15. Koenig, H. G., King, D. E., & Carson, V. B. (2012). Handbook of religion and health (2nd ed.). Oxford University Press: England.
16. Kordzadeh, N., & Young, D. K. (2018). Exploring hospitals’ use of Facebook: Thematic analysis. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 20(5), e190. doi: 10.2196/jmir.9549
17. Krause, N., Hill, P. C., Emmons, R., Pargament, K. I., & Ironson, G. (2017). Assessing the relationship between religious involvement and health behaviors. Health Education & Behavior, 44(2), 278-284. doi: 10.1177/1090198116655314
18. Krettenauer, T., & Lefebvre, J. P. (2021). Beyond subjective and personal: Endorsing pro- environmental norms as moral norms. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 76, 101644. doi: 10.1016/j.jenvp.2021.101644
19. Mardotillah, M., Gunawan, B., Soemarwoto, R. S., & Raksanagara, A. S. (2019). Pengaruh kepercayaan, pengetahuan dan sikap terhadap akses jamban di perkotaan. Jurnal Sosial Humaniora, 12(2), 142-160.
20. Notoatmodjo, S. (2014). Promosi kesehatan dan perilaku kesehatan. Jakarta: Rineka Cipta.
21. Nowell, L. S., Norris, J. M., White, & Moules, N. J. (2017). Thematic analysis: Striving to meet the trustworthiness criteria. International of Qualitative Methods, 16, 1-13. doi: 10.1177/1609406917733847
22. Rottger, S., Maier, J., Krex-Brinkmann, L., Kowalski, J. T., Krick, A., Felfe, J., & Stein, M. (2017). Social cognitive aspects of the participation in workplace health promotion as revealed by the theory of planned behavior. Preventive Medicine, 105, 104-108. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2017.09.004
23. Samplaski, M. K. (2018). A thematic analysis of online discussion boards for vasectomy. Urology, 111, 32-38. doi: 10.1016/j.urology.2017.06.061
24. Schnell, T., & Krampe, H. (2020). Meaning in life and self-control buffer stress in times of COVID-19: Moderating and mediating effects with regard to mental distress. Frontier Psychiatry, 11, 582352. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2020.582352
25. Schuz, B., Conner, M., Wilding, S., Alhawtan, R., Prestwich, A., & Norman, P. (2021). Do socio-cultural factors moderate the effects of health cognitions on COVID-19 protection behaviors? Social Science & Medicine, 285, 114261. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2021.114261