Risk and Protective Factors for ADHD in Damietta, Egypt

Main Article Content

Amir Soliman
Safy Eldin Mahmoud AboAli
Dania Abdelhady Mohammed
Ahmed E. Sarhan
Mohamed Elsheikh
Asmaa M. Al-Emrany
Omnia Saeed Mahmoud Ahmed

Keywords

protective factors; risk factors; ADHD; neurodevelopmental; Damietta

Abstract

Background: With the world widely increasing burden of neurodevelopmental disorders in general and ADHD in particular the need for more studies about its risk and protective factors becomes urgent, working in this research area will enable us to find better ways to reduce incidence of ADHD.
Results: To assess possible risk and protective factors of ADHD in children in Damietta governorate
this case-control study included100 ADHD patients and 100 matched controls, 70% males and 30% females, aged between 3 and 18 years, patients were recruited from specialized institutions and controls from regular schools in Damietta in a period of 6 months, the study suggested some risk factors for ADHD as residence in urban areas, parental consanguinity, prenatal maternal active or passive exposure to tobacco smoke, regular maternal psychoactive drugs intake, maternal high intake of sugar, family exposure to furniture paints, family regular intake of food additives, having a sibling with ADHD, and some protective factors which are regular maternal iron intake, folic acid intake, and omega3 intake during pregnancy.
Conclusion: Risk factors revealed by the study for ADHD are residence in urban areas, parental consanguinity, prenatal maternal active or passive exposure to tobacco smoke, regular maternal psychoactive drugs intake, maternal high intake of sugar, family exposure to furniture paints, family regular intake of food additives, having a sibling with ADHD and protective factors are regular maternal iron intake, folic acid intake, and omega3 intake during pregnancy.

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