The role of inflammasomes in periodontal disease and pathogenesis

Main Article Content

Nada Hashim
Rasha Babiker
Riham Mohammed
Mohammed Mustahsen Rehman
Bakri Gobara

Keywords

Inflammasome, NLRP3, periodontal disease, periodontal pathogen, IL-1β

Abstract

Inflammasomes are complex cellular structures that play crucial roles in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease. Inflammasomes are proteins that sense microbial pathogens in the host and trigger an inflammatory response. This response is vital for combating infection but can also damage tissue if inflammation is not controlled. Several studies have reviewed the role of inflammasomes in periodontal disease. In periodontal disease, inflammasome activation has been linked to the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which can lead to tissue destruction and periodontal damage. The term "inflammasome" was coined by Jurg Tschopp in 2002. Recently, significant research has focused on activating inflammasomes and their roles in disease processes. The NLRP1, NLRP3, NLRC4, and AIM2 inflammasomes have been identified as essential. Inflammasomes are a group of proteins that are part of the innate immune system and play a role in the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases. They are activated by bacteria, which leads to the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 (IL-1), and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Periodontitis is triggered by these cytokines, leading to increased inflammation and tissue destruction. This review aimed to examine how these inflammasomes contribute to periodontitis pathogenesis.

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