Prevalence Risk Factors and Management of Dry Eye Disease in The Academic Hospital of Riyadh Saudi Arabia

Main Article Content

Hayat Alzahrani
Maryam Alharbi
Gharam Alanazi
Najd AlKhudhairy
Raneem Alqahtani
Bader AlMehmadi

Keywords

Dry eye disease, dry eye syndrome; Risk factors, treatment satisfaction, Saudi Arabia

Abstract

Background and Objectives: Dry eye disease is highly prevalent in Arab countries. The study aims to measure the prevalence of dry eye syndrome in Primary Health care settings at King Abdullah bin Abdulaziz University Hospital. To determine the incidence of risk factors with dry eye syndrome, in addition to the effective different therapeutic modalities for dry eye syndrome, finally to assess the patient's satisfaction with their treatment.
Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among patients who attended the outpatient department (OPD) of King Abdullah bin Abdulaziz University Hospital (KAAUH), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, in 2022. The study used Dry Eye Epidemiologic Projects (DEEP) and the Dry Eye Treatment satisfaction module questionnaire to evaluate the study objectives. Statistical analysis was carried out using RStudio (R version 4.1.1).
Results: The final analysis was conducted on 358 participants. Most were females (73.2%) and Saudis (98.6%). The prevalence of DED in our study was 31.0% (95%CI, 26.3 to 36.1). Based on the multivariate analysis, the female gender (OR=4.49, 95% CI, 1.86 to 11.8, p = 0.001), medication use (OR=2.25, 95% CI, 1.22 to 4.15, p = 0.009) and a history of eye surgery (OR=2.28, 95% CI, 1.25 to 4.16, p = 0.007) were independent risk factors for dry eye disease among the participants. Regarding satisfaction with treatment effectiveness, more than half of the respondents agreed or strongly agreed that the treatment relieved most of the DED symptoms (58.5%) and was happy with how quickly the treatments worked.
Conclusions: In conclusion, female gender, use of medication, and history of eye surgery were identified risk factors for DED. There was an increased prevalence of DED residents of Riyadh in our study. Further prospective clinical studies should be conducted to evaluate the risk factor and causes of increased prevalence in the kingdom.

Abstract 391 | pdf Downloads 143

References

1. Golden MI, Meyer JJ, Patel BC. Dry eye syndrome. In StatPearls [Internet]; StatPearls Publishing: 2022.
2. Craig JP, Nichols KK, Akpek EK, Caffery B, Dua HS, Joo CK, et al. TFOS DEWS II Definition and Classification Report. Ocul Surf. 15:276–283,.
3. Rouen PA, White ML. Dry eye disease: prevalence, assessment, and management. Home Healthc now. 36:74–83.
4. Kojima T. Contact lens-associated dry eye disease: recent advances worldwide and in Japan. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 59:102– 108.
5. Stapleton F, Alves M, Bunya VY, Jalbert I, Lekhanont K, Malet F, et al. No Title. Vol. 15.
6. ZA IYH. Dry eye syndrome risk factors: A systemic review. Saudi J Ophthalmol Off J Saudi Ophthalmol Soc. 35:131–139.
7. Qian L, Wei W. Identified risk factors for dry eye syndrome: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 17, e0271267.
8. Oden NL, Lilienfeld DE, Lemp MA, Nelson JD, Ederer F. Sensitivity and specificity of a screening questionnaire for dry eye. Lacrimal Gland, Tear Film, and Dry Eye Syndromes 2. Basic Sci Clin Relev. :807–820.
9. Bukhari A, Ajlan R, Alsaggaf H. Prevalence of Dry Eye in the Normal Population in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Orbit. 28:392–397,.
10. Alshamrani AA, Almousa AS, Almulhim AA, Alafaleq AA, Alosaimi MB, Alqahtani AM, et al. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Dry Eye Symptoms in a Saudi Arabian Population. Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol. 24:67–73,.
11. Alharbi A, Alanazi N, Alhamad J, Alabdulqader R, Aljamea D, Alabdulqader S. Prevalence of symptomatic dry eye and its risk factors among coastal population in eastern province of Saudi Arabia. J Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 9:34.
12. Alkhaldi SA, Allam KH, Radwan MA, Sweeney LE, Alshammeri S. Estimates of dry eye disease in Saudi Arabia based on a short questionnaire of prevalence, symptoms, and risk factors: The Twaiq Mountain Eye Study I. Contact Lens Anterior Eye. 101770.
13. Aziz B, Tawfik C. Prevalence of dry eye disease among healthy Egyptian population. Vol. 113. p. 133–141,.
14. Vehof J, Kozareva D, Hysi PG, Hammond CJ. Prevalence and risk factors of dry eye disease in a British female cohort. Br J Ophthalmol. 98:1712–1717.
15. Farrand KF, Fridman M, Stillman IÖ, Schaumberg DA. Prevalence of diagnosed dry eye disease in the United States among adults aged 18 years and older. Am J Ophthalmol. 182:90–98.
16. Wang MTM, Vidal-Rohr M, Muntz A, Diprose WK, Ormonde SE, Wolffsohn JS, et al. Systemic risk factors of dry eye disease subtypes: a New Zealand cross-sectional study. Ocul Surf. 18:374–380.
17. Sullivan DA, Sullivan BD, Evans JE, Schirra F, Yamagami H, Liu M, et al. Androgen deficiency, Meibomian gland dysfunction, and evaporative dry eye. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 966:211–222.
18. Azcarate PM, Venincasa VD, Feuer W, Stanczyk F, Schally A V, Galor A. Androgen Deficiency and Dry Eye Syndrome in the Aging Male. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 55:5046–5053,.
19. Lee AJ, Lee J, Saw SM, Gazzard G, Koh D, Widjaja D, et al. Prevalence and risk factors associated with dry eye symptoms: a population based study in Indonesia. Br J Ophthalmol. 86:1347–1351.
20. Tongg L, Saw S-M, Lamoureux EL, Wang JJ, Rosman M, Tan DTH, et al. A questionnaire-based assessment of symptoms associated with tear film dysfunction and lid margin disease in an Asian population. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 16:31–37.
21. Guo B, Lu P, Chen X, Zhang W, Chen R. Prevalence of dry eye disease in Mongolians at high altitude in China: the Henan eye study. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 17:234–241.
22. Lu P, Chen X, Liu X, Yu L, Kang Y, Xie Q, et al. Dry eye syndrome in elderly Tibetans at high altitude: a population-based study in China. Cornea. 27:545–551.
23. Abetz L, Rajagopalan K, Mertzanis P, Begley C, Barnes R, Chalmers R. Development and validation of the impact of dry eye on everyday life (IDEEL) questionnaire, a patient-reported outcomes (PRO) measure for the assessment of the burden of dry eye on patients. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 9:1–16.
24. Yang I, Wakamatsu T, Sacho IBI, Fazzi JH, Aquino AC, Ayub G, et al. Prevalence and associated risk factors for dry eye disease among Brazilian undergraduate students. PLoS One. 16:259399.
25. Al Sabti K, Zechevikj S, Raizada S. Evaluation of lipid layer tear film changes after femtosecond small incision lenticule extraction. Ther Adv Ophthalmol. 14:25158414221129534,.
26. Rauz S, Koay SY, Foot B, Kaye SB, Figueiredo F, Burdon MA, et al. The Royal College of Ophthalmologists guidelines on serum eye drops for the treatment of severe ocular surface disease: executive summary. Eye. 32:44–48.
27. White DE, Zhao Y, Jayapalan H, Machiraju P, Periyasamy R, Ogundele A. Treatment satisfaction among patients using anti-inflammatory topical medications for dry eye disease. Clin Ophthalmol. :875–883.