The effects of HIV on immune cells and correlation with cardiovascular diseases

Main Article Content

Hayam A. Desoky


Immunology HIV , CD4,cardiovascular diseases, lipid


Although the roll-out of anti-retroviral therapy has slowed down the spread of HIV-AIDS, studies have shown that the treatment can still increase the risk of developing cardio-metabolic issues. In this study, we hypothesized that the effects of HIV on immune cells could contribute to the development of cardiovascular diseases. The goal of our study was to analyze the changes in the T and monocyte cell subsets of the immune system caused by HIV. We also examined the relationship between these changes and the viral load. The study was conducted in Egypt, where 80 participants were recruited. They were divided into groups based on their CD4 count, as well as those who were HIV-nave and those who were treated with cART. The control group had a CD4 count of 500 cells/L, while the group that was HIV-positive had a count of 200 cells/L. The data collected during the study were used to analyze the effects of the HIV treatment on the monocyte and T cells subsets. They were then analyzed using flow cytometry. In addition to these, the researchers also used tissue factor and CD38 to identify the changes in the monocyte subpopulation.The results of the study revealed that the levels of coagulation and inflammation markers significantly increased in the CD4+ and CD8+ T cell populations. The co-expression of these markers also increased.

Abstract 119 | pdf Downloads 110


1. Anderson JL, Khoury G, Fromentin R, Solomon A, Chomont N, Sinclair E, et al. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-Infected CCR6+ Rectal CD4+ T Cells and HIV Persistence on Antiretroviral Therapy. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2020;221.
2. Diaz CM, Segura ER, Luz PM, Clark JL, Ribeiro SR, de Boni R, et al. Traditional and HIV-specific risk factors for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality among HIV-infected adults in Brazil: A retrospective cohort study. BMC Infect Dis 2016;16.
3. Chen B, Morris SR, Panigrahi S, Michaelson GM, Wyrick JM, Komissarov AA, et al. Cytomegalovirus Coinfection Is Associated with Increased Vascular-Homing CD57+ CD4 T Cells in HIV Infection. The Journal of Immunology 2020;204.
4. Martínez-Ayala P, Alanis-Sánchez GA, González-Hernández LA, Álvarez-Zavala M, Cabrera-Silva RI, Andrade-Villanueva JF, et al. Aortic stiffness and central hemodynamics in treatment-naïve HIV infection: A cross-sectional study. BMC Cardiovasc Disord 2020;20.
5. Farhadian M, Mohammadi Y, Mirzaei M, Shirmohammadi-Khorram N. Factors related to baseline CD4 cell counts in HIV/AIDS patients: comparison of poisson, generalized poisson and negative binomial regression models. BMC Res Notes 2021;14.
6. Song CB, Zhang L le, Wu X, Fu YJ, Jiang YJ, Shang H, et al. CD4+CD38+ central memory T cells contribute to HIV persistence in HIV-infected individuals on long-term ART. J Transl Med 2020;18.
7. Xu Y, Weideman AM, Abad-Fernandez M, Mollan KR, Kallon S, Samir S, et al. Reliable Estimation of CD8 T Cell Inhibition of In Vitro HIV-1 Replication. Front Immunol 2021;12.
8. Darcis G, Kootstra NA, Hooibrink B, van Montfort T, Maurer I, Groen K, et al. CD32+CD4+ T Cells Are Highly Enriched for HIV DNA and Can Support Transcriptional Latency. Cell Rep 2020;30.
9. Okeke NL, Davy T, Eron JJ, Napravnik S. Hypertension among HIV-infected Patients in Clinical Care, 1996-2013. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2021;63.
10. Menozzi M, Zona S, Santoro A, Carli F, Stentarelli C, Mussini C, et al. CD4/CD8 ratio is not predictive of multi-morbidity prevalence in HIV-infected patients but identify patients with higher CVD risk. J Int AIDS Soc 2014;17.
11. Claireaux M, Robinot R, Kervevan J, Patgaonkar M, Staropoli I, Brelot A, et al. Low CCR5 expression protects HIV-specific CD4+ T cells of elite controllers from viral entry. Nat Commun 2022;13.
12. Zaniewski E, Dao Ostinelli CH, Chammartin F, Maxwell N, Davies MA, Euvrard J, et al. Trends in CD4 and viral load testing 2005 to 2018: multi-cohort study of people living with HIV in Southern Africa. J Int AIDS Soc 2020;23.
13. Fu YS, Chu QS, Ashuro AA, Di DS, Zhang Q, Liu XM, et al. The effect of probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics on CD4 counts in HIV-infected patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Biomed Res Int 2020;2020.
14. Galkin A, Chen Y, Guenaga J, O’Dell S, Acevedo R, Steinhardt JJ, et al. HIV-1 gp120–CD4-Induced Antibody Complex Elicits CD4 Binding Site–Specific Antibody Response in Mice. The Journal of Immunology 2020;204.
15. Clayton KL, Mylvaganam G, Villasmil-Ocando A, Stuart H, Maus M v., Rashidian M, et al. HIV-infected macrophages resist efficient NK cell-mediated killing while preserving inflammatory cytokine responses. Cell Host Microbe 2021;29.
16. Muzahim YE, Khan MS, Katner HP. Response to penicillin for presumed neurosyphilis in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus (Hiv), a normal cd4 count, and an undetectable viral load: A case report. American Journal of Case Reports 2021;22.
17. Guo H, Wang Q, Ghneim K, Wang L, Rampanelli E, Holley-Guthrie E, et al. Multi-omics analyses reveal that HIV-1 alters CD4+ T cell immunometabolism to fuel virus replication. Nat Immunol 2021;22.
18. Niessl J, Baxter AE, Morou A, Brunet-Ratnasingham E, Sannier G, Gendron-Lepage G, et al. Persistent expansion and Th1-like skewing of HIV-specific circulating T follicular helper cells during antiretroviral therapy. EBioMedicine 2020;54.
19. Pino M, Ribeiro SP, Pagliuzza A, Ghneim K, Khan A, Ryan E, et al. Increased homeostatic cytokines and stability of HIV-infected memory CD4 T-cells identify individuals with suboptimal CD4 T-cell recovery on-ART. PLoS Pathog 2021;17.
20. Leeme TB, Mine M, Lechiile K, Mulenga F, Mosepele M, Mphoyakgosi T, et al. Utility of CD4 count measurement in the era of universal antiretroviral therapy: an analysis of routine laboratory data in Botswana. HIV Med 2021;22.
21. Resino S, Jiménez-Sousa MÁ, Blanco J, Pacheco YM, del Romero J, Peraire J, et al. DBP rs7041 and DHCR7 rs3829251 are Linked to CD4+ Recovery in HIV Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy. Front Pharmacol 2022;12.
22. Nasuuna E, Tenforde MW, Muganzi A, Jarvis JN, Manabe YC, Kigozi J. Reduction in Baseline CD4 Count Testing following Human Immunodeficiency Virus “treat All” Adoption in Uganda. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2020;71.
23. Onoya D, Nattey C, Jinga N, Mongwenyana C, Sherman G. Time of HIV diagnosis, CD4 count and viral load at antenatal care start and delivery in South Africa. PLoS One 2020;15.
24. Freiberg MS, Duncan MS, Alcorn C, Chang CCH, Kundu S, Mumpuni A, et al. Hiv infection and the risk of world health organization–defined sudden cardiac death. J Am Heart Assoc 2021;10.
25. Kumar S, Kumar R, Singh J, Nisar KS, Kumar D. An efficient numerical scheme for fractional model of HIV-1 infection of CD4+ T-cells with the effect of antiviral drug therapy. Alexandria Engineering Journal 2020;59.
26. O’neil TR, Hu K, Truong NR, Arshad S, Shacklett BL, Cunningham AL, et al. The role of tissue resident memory cd4 t cells in herpes simplex viral and hiv infection. Viruses 2021;13.
27. Yuan Y, Jacobs CA, Llorente Garcia I, Pereira PM, Lawrence SP, Laine RF, et al. Single-molecule super-resolution imaging of t-cell plasma membrane cd4 redistribution upon hiv-1 binding. Viruses 2021;13.
28. Schiff AE, Linder AH, Luhembo SN, Banning S, Deymier MJ, Diefenbach TJ, et al. T cell-tropic HIV efficiently infects alveolar macrophages through contact with infected CD4+ T cells. Sci Rep 2021;11.
29. Wang Z, Yin X, Ma M, Ge H, Lang B, Sun H, et al. IP-10 Promotes Latent HIV Infection in Resting Memory CD4+ T Cells via LIMK-Cofilin Pathway. Front Immunol 2021;12.
30. Card CM, Abrenica B, McKinnon LR, Ball TB, Su RC. Endothelial Cells Promote Productive HIV Infection of Resting CD4+T Cells by an Integrin-Mediated Cell Adhesion-Dependent Mechanism. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2022;38.
31. Neidleman J, Luo X, Frouard J, Xie G, Hsiao F, Ma T, et al. Phenotypic analysis of the unstimulated in vivo hiv cd4 t cell reservoir. Elife 2020;9.
32. Chemych OM, Chemych MD, Olefir AA, Berest Ob. Clinical Features Of The Hiv Infection Course And The Dependence Of Changes In Laboratory Parameters On The Clinical Stage And On The Cd4 Lymphocytes Level. Wiad Lek 2021;74. Https://Doi.Org/10.36740/Wlek202105126.
33. Hoffmann MAG, Bar-On Y, Yang Z, Gristick HB, Gnanapragasam PNP, Vielmetter J, et al. Nanoparticles presenting clusters of CD4 expose a universal vulnerability of HIV-1 by mimicking target cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020;117.
34. Ahmed N, Rafiq M, Adel W, Rezazadeh H, Khan I, Nisar KS. Structure Preserving Numerical Analysis of HIV and CD4+T-Cells Reaction Diffusion Model in Two Space Dimensions. Chaos Solitons Fractals 2020;139.
35. PhamDo V, Nyamathi AM, Ekstrand ML, Sinha S, Yadav K, Shin SS. Association Between Maternal HIV Stigma Among South Indian Mothers Living with HIV and the CD4 Count of Children Living with HIV. AIDS Behav 2022;26.
36. Brito MJ, Sequeira P, Silva I, Quintas A, Martins C, Félix A. CD4+ and CD8+ cell populations in HIV-positive women with cervical squamous intra-epithelial lesions and squamous cell carcinoma. International Journal of Infectious Diseases 2021;103.
37. Ahmed N, Elsonbaty A, Adel W, Baleanu D, Rafiq M. Stability analysis and numerical simulations of spatiotemporal HIV CD4+ T cell model with drug therapy. Chaos 2020;30.
38. Li H, Lahusen T, Xiao L, Muvarak N, Blazkova J, Chun TW, et al. Preclinical Development and Clinical-Scale Manufacturing of HIV Gag-Specific, LentivirusModified CD4 T Cells for HIV Functional Cure. Mol Ther Methods Clin Dev 2020;17.
39. Maldini CR, Gayout K, Leibman RS, Dopkin DL, Mills JP, Shan X, et al. HIV-Resistant and HIV-Specific CAR-Modified CD4+ T Cells Mitigate HIV Disease Progression and Confer CD4+ T Cell Help In Vivo. Molecular Therapy 2020;28.
40. Wymant C, Bezemer D, Blanquart F, Ferretti L, Gall A, Hall M, et al. A highly virulent variant of HIV-1 circulating in the Netherlands. Science (1979) 2022;375.
41. Cao D, Khanal S, Wang L, Li Z, Zhao J, Nguyen LN, et al. A Matter of Life or Death: Productively Infected and Bystander CD4 T Cells in Early HIV Infection. Front Immunol 2021;11.
42. Mohyud-Din ST, Nazir A, Almohsin B, Ahmed N, Khan U, Waheed A, et al. On mathematical model of HIV CD4+T-cells. Alexandria Engineering Journal 2021;60.