Main Article Content

Tahira Nawaz
Hassan Karim
Safia Nawaz
Annas khan


Infection Control, knowledge, practice, Nurses, Hygiene


Introduction: Infection related to health care especially in hospitals has been pointed as a risk that threatens patient safety. It is among the leading cause of morbidity and mortality representing an important public health problem. Healthcare-related infections have a considerable impact on the morbidity and mortality rates in the intra- and extra-hospital environment, resulting in an increase in the time spent and costs of hospitalization, and are thus recognized as a serious world public health problem. Health care providers are constantly exposed to microorganism. Many of which can cause serious or even lethal infections. Nurses in particular are often exposed to microorganisms when carrying out nursing interventions. Knowledge and Practice regarding infection control measures in different countries vary and depends upon various factors.

Objective: To assess Knowledge and Practices Regarding Infection Control Measures

Methodology: This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in two tertiary care hospitals in Peshawar, KP, Pakistan, to explore Knowledge and Practices about Infection Control measures. A sample of 158 participants, including staff nurses, student nurses, and head nurses, was selected using convenience sampling technique. Data was collected via a 20-item questionnaire including questions from infection control measures, personal protective equipment, and biomedical waste management. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 22, calculating means and standard deviations for continuous data and frequencies and percentages for categorical data.

Results: The demographic data showed that 73.08% of participants were staff nurses, 14.74% were student nurses, and 12.18% were head nurses. Key findings revealed that 35.14% of participants examined patients bare-handed, 29.73% varied their approach, and 40% practiced correct hand-washing techniques in operating theaters. Additionally, 43% rated their hygiene knowledge as satisfactory. Awareness of WHO hand-washing techniques was high at 95.83%, with varying awareness of the proper use of medical masks, gloves, gowns, and aprons/eye protection. Regarding biomedical waste management, 75% of participants understood the hazards and legislation, and 81% followed color-coding practices. Needle-stick injuries were a concern for 72% of respondents, with 58% reporting such injuries in the past year. Overall, there was strong awareness and adherence to infection control measures and PPE guidelines, though variability existed in practices and satisfaction with hygiene knowledge and waste management.

Conclusion: Infection in healthcare facilities remains a major concern in developing countries. Our study identified key barriers to effective infection control, particularly the improper use of PPE such as gowns and eye protection. Despite availability, healthcare workers often misuse these items, increasing infection risk. Enhanced training, stricter PPE protocol enforcement, and continuous monitoring are urgently needed to improve infection control and safeguard health.

Abstract 50 | pdf Downloads 17


1. MedicineNet. Definition of infection [Internet]. Available from: Accessed December 2, 2020.
2. Page K, Wilson M, Parkin IP. Antimicrobial surfaces and their potential in reducing the role of the inanimate environment in the incidence of hospital-acquired infections. J Mater Chem. 2009;19(23):3818-31. Available from:
3. Drexler M. How infection works. In: Institute of Medicine (US). 2010.
4. Lobo D, Soliman L. Correlation between health professionals’ knowledge, attitude and practice about infection control measures. J Med Allied Sci. 2019. Available from:
5. Iliyasu G, Dayyab FM, Habib ZG. Knowledge and practices of infection control among healthcare workers in a tertiary referral center in north-western Nigeria. Arch Appl Sci Res. 2016. Available from:
6. Knowledge and practice of nursing staff towards infection control measures in the Palestinian hospitals [Internet]. Available from: Accessed December 5, 2020.
7. Salem OA. Knowledge and practices of nurses in infection prevention and control within a tertiary care hospital. Ann Med Health Sci Res. 2019;9.
8. Sadia H, Kousar R, Azhar M, Waqas A, Amir Gilani S. Assessment of nurses’ knowledge and practices regarding prevention of surgical site infection. Saudi J Med Pharm Sci. Available from:
9. Bekele I. Adherence to infection prevention and factors among nurses in Jimma University Medical Center. 2018. Available from:
10. Sahiledengle B. Decontamination of patient equipment: nurses’ self-reported decontamination practice in hospitals of southeast Ethiopia. BMC Res Notes. 2019;12(1):392. Available from:
11. Geberemariyam BS, Donka GM, Wordofa B. Assessment of knowledge and practices of healthcare workers towards infection prevention and associated factors in healthcare facilities of west Arsi district, southeast Ethiopia: a facility-based cross-sectional study. Arch Public Health. 2018;76(1):1-11. Available from:
12. Hebo H, Estifaons W, Sh H, Es M, Fe M. Attitude and practice of infection prevention measures among health care workers in Wolaitta Sodo Otona Teaching and Referral Hospital. J Nurs Care. 2017. Available from:
13. Kaur H, Wadhwa R, Kumar D. Knowledge, attitude and practice on hand hygiene among staff nurses in a tertiary health care setting in Haryana. Int J Res Med Sci. 2021;9(6):1673-8.
14. Allegranzi B, Pittet D. Role of hand hygiene in healthcare-associated infection prevention. J Hosp Infect. 2009;73(4):305-15.
15. Erasmus V, Daha TJ, Brug H, et al. Systematic review of studies on compliance with hand hygiene guidelines in hospital care. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2010;31(3):283-94.
16. Jain M, Dogra V, Mishra B, et al. Infection control practices among doctors and nurses in a tertiary care hospital. Ann Trop Med Public Health. 2012;5(1):29-33.
17. World Health Organization. WHO guidelines on hand hygiene in health care. Geneva: WHO Press; 2009.
18. Manyele SV, Ngonyani HA, Eliakimu E. The status of occupational safety among health service providers in hospitals in Tanzania. Tanzan J Health Res. 2008;10(3):159-65.
19. Uba G, Baba MM, Bulus H, et al. Assessment of infection control practices among healthcare workers in primary healthcare centres in Borno State, Nigeria. J Med Sci. 2015;5(2):62-9.
20. Pittet D, Simon A, Hugonnet S, et al. Hand hygiene among physicians: performance, beliefs and perceptions. Ann Intern Med. 2004;141(1):1-8