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Sana Arshad
Syed Mohsin Bukhari
Arshad Javid
Shahid Mehmood
Ali Ahmed Sheikh


Antibiotic resistance, bacterial pathogens, molecular characterization, potable water


Bacterial pathogens are the primary cause of waterborne diseases among people and antimicrobial resistance of these pathogens has become a challenge and serious cause of mortalities in many countries. The current study aimed to characterize bacterial pathogens (E. coli, Shigella and Klebsiella) at molecular level from drinking water and their antimicrobial resistance against different antibiotics. 215 water samples were collected from different locations of Kasur, Faisalabad and Gujrat with the help of GPS essentials. All the samples were plated, cultured and specific bacterial isolates were obtained. For molecular characterization, the genomic DNA of bacterial isolates were amplified using 16S rRNA universal primers. Antibacterial resistance was assessed by using disc diffusion method. The results revealed that the streptomycin and azithromycin (80-95%), amoxicillin (50-100%), ampicillin, penicillin, neomycin and gentamycin (70-30%) showed higher resistance against E. coli, Shigella and Klebsiella species. Other antibiotics like cefotaxime, cephalothin, clarithromycin and gatifloxacin (5-20%) resistance against bacterial species. Finding of this study revealed that higher resistance of bacteria against antibiotics limits the effects of antibiotics and there is pressing need of advancement in treatment and eradication of these bacterial species from drinking water.

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