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Hina Allah Ditta
Tayyaba Yasin
Madiha Shahzad Lodhi
Rihana Dilshad
Rizwana Dilshad
Hafiz Babar Ali
Sultan Ahmad
Sabira Sultana


Cytokines, Interleukin-6, Leukemia Inhibitory Factor, Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha, in vitro fertilization, Pregnancy.


Background: Infertility is a significant global health issue and despite advancements in assisted reproductive technologies (ART) like in vitro fertilization (IVF), success rates remain relatively low.

Objective: This study aimed to explore the correlation between serum Interleukin-6 (IL-6), Leukemia Inhibitory Factor (LIF), and Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α) and IVF success in women undergoing fertility treatment.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 80 women aged 30 to 40 years undergoing IVF at a fertility clinic. Inclusion criteria included primary or secondary infertility and recurrent miscarriages, with exclusion criteria focusing on specific surgical histories and lack of histopathologic diagnoses. Blood samples were drawn during IVF procedures to measure IL-6, LIF, and TNF-α levels using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Descriptive statistics and Mann-Whitney U tests were employed for data analysis using SPSS version 26.

Results: The mean age of participants was 33.42±4.74 years, and the mean BMI was 27.20±4.68. Among participants, 76 (95%) were nulliparous, and 64 (80%) had primary infertility. The most common blood group was O+ve (57.5%). The study found no statistically significant differences in mean cytokine levels between women with positive and negative pregnancy outcomes: IL-6 (55.20±28.87 vs. 47.76±21.76, p=0.436), LIF (197.96±208.31 vs. 157.41±116.67, p=0.603), and TNF-α (377.35±361.51 vs. 145.41±68.11, p=0.073).

Conclusion: Although higher mean levels of IL-6, LIF, and TNF-α were observed in women with positive pregnancy outcomes. These findings suggest that while cytokines may play a role in reproductive processes, their levels alone do not serve as definitive predictors of IVF success.

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